Analysis of the causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union malorezultativen without considering the range of problems generated by a revolutionary attempt to accelerate historical time. These problems and their impact on the structure and the character of the Soviet (Russian) economy and the Soviet (Russian) society highlighted in the article I. Mogilevkin.
preserving the unity of Russia’s problems is very sharp. Meanwhile, the difficult questions of decay and disappearance of powers are still trying to explain some specific events or actions of specific individuals. It is clear, however, that these approaches can no longer properly disclose the current new reality. Changed major factors domestic and foreign policy. There is a need to revise the approach to the basic concepts of space and time.
The spatial dimension of the problems discussed in the article “Russia: space as an economic and political category” 1. It also analyzed the factor of time.
Modern people mostly think in terms of linear time to time flow direction ( “arrow of time”) from past to future. At the same time expresses the duration of existence, change the sequence of states. While does not exist by itself without any material changes.
If we start from changes in the economic, social and other spheres of public life, we can say the following. Against the backdrop of the global acceleration of the “external” time rate of development of individual countries, not only is different, but has a tendency to greater differentiation. The difference in speeds, and as a consequence – temporal (time) difference between the two countries, has always existed. New can be considered that in a Start-technical and information revolutions, the end of XX century. the difference in speeds increase and many countries like run away, move away from each other in time. This phenomenon, which can be called a dispersion in time becomes more and more obvious.
As a result, many countries are like in different eras, a large time intervals ( “time gap”) between them, which are often extended dangerous. There are difficult, sometimes intractable problems and conflicts. At the same time the rate of development of each country (or speed the current “it” time) is determined mainly by changes within a given country, the internal dynamics of the economy, changes in the social environment and other areas of society.
Obviously, the lag in the general flow of the “external” (global) Time fraught with dangers for the country as emanating from outside and emerging on domestic reasons.
In this respect, Russia is very significant experience. Not only the failure of the First World War, and even earlier – in the Crimean War of 1853-1856, the Russo-Japanese, 1904-1905, but also the results of the Afghan and Chechen campaigns were then conditioned in the whole temporal lag of the country in the broadest sense.. . In this backwardness is not only a decline in economic growth or even a contraction in output, but also the state of public morals, the inadequacy of political institutions, social degradation, non-compliance with the era (in other words, time requirements) social psychology.
There is no lack of attempts to state authorities in Russia and other countries to accelerate development (the notorious policy of “acceleration”, etc.), that is, increasing the rate of development of the country, to accelerate during the so-called “internal” time to bring it closer to the time rate of the external speed. Both history and the current era of evidence that such attempts often lead to opposite results.
Even with a relatively progressive leadership with modern educated leaders of the country, located in the general level of economic development, social institutions, population psychology somewhere in a past era, can not “simply” to connect to the general course of external time. A tragic example of the Shah of Iran 60-70s, which its rulers could not “snatch” from the era of the caliphate – just one of many. It is clear that the more a country than it is varied according to the economic, social and other infrastructure, ethnic composition, the harder it is to speed up its internal time.
As “implant” most multiform country, entire regions where they live essentially in the feudal era, in the XXI century, the century of computer science? The need to address this problem is especially evident in the light of the temporal approach. In this case, the lag in the overall development of the country is presented as a phenomenon of its “loss” of modernity. Approach to social time as a complex integrated concept explains the inability to solve the problem of acceleration of the usual in such situations, a “surface” means – the import of new technology, changes in the governance structures and others.
In contrast, the high costs associated with these attempts, and the destruction of the already existing “vertical management” frequently bring no benefit, but harm. An example of Russia ’90s is not unique. Arguments about the universality of economic laws are of little help, since one and the same political course gives very different results in the countries of actually being in different historical epochs. In such great powers as Russia, to the authorities the question arises – how to reduce the time a variety of internal (economic, social, cultural, etc.) society to uniformity and thus to preserve the unity of the country, not to allow its regions finally “ran “to different eras.
This task is an internal temporal unity of the most consistently tried to resolve the Soviet regime. It is very interesting that the Soviet government, to adhere as a whole is extremely materialistic ideology, in addressing this issue the emphasis is on the formation of a unified social psychology – on the education of the “new man”, who was supposed to meet the new, progressive standards. It was about “the future of the education of man,” of course, such as he is imagined communist ideology.
In the aspect of the territorial (ie, spatial), the Soviet authorities tried to pull together, and then align the levels of development of the republics and regions, and thus how to drive in a very diverse musical epochs territorial-administrative units, which together constitute the USSR. The social aspect of the trend equalization revenues, general and uniform system of education, little differentiated social security system, among other things, provide also a temporary leveling.
Results grandiose Soviet experiment known. Create temporal unity failed. Moreover, the differences in levels of development (economic, social, etc.), gradually increasing, began to destroy the internal relationship, a kind of “divorce” farther to different eras first union, and behind them and autonomous entities. It has become obvious that the time dispersion (within the country) leads to its spatial decay. These possible conclusions are far from exhausted.
The varied impact of temporary changes can be considered both in the domestic and the foreign material. At the same time found a number of very significant circumstances. The specifics of the Russian experience, in particular, lies in the fact that when read in the light of the temporal theory identifies examples of very uneven internal time: a systematic lag periods interspersed with vigorous efforts to force the acceleration. The reforms of Peter I, the policy of the tsarist government in the end of the past – the beginning of this century, the whole ideology and practice of the Bolsheviks, the current reforms – this is essentially a list of the most important stages of a huge effort.
The roots of this particular Russian experience dates back to the specifics of the state.Russia has developed not only as a multi-national, but at the same time as the state, bringing together “the earth” (ie space) and the people who belonged to different eras.Accordingly, the one common global problem – relations between countries (peoples ‘civilizations’), living as if in a different time, in Russia has always manifested and continues to manifest itself with particular acuteness. For this reason, Russia (in the past – the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union) is a kind of “special” world, a kind of economic, political, and in a broader sense and cultural microcosm. This explains the exceptional contribution to Russia in world culture in the broadest sense of the concept. However, the Russian experience, both positive and negative,
Inside Russia relationship (economic and otherwise) for this reason, it is very complex, indeed international, and that is especially important to emphasize multitemporalnymi. Typically, comparing Russia with the Western countries, indicate that the latter are mono-ethnic and multinational Russia. But this does not explain the whole complexity of the problem. We should not focus so much on purely ethnic, but about the time difference. They create for the public authorities huge difficulties in establishing and maintaining internal relationships, especially in the management of the center, in the notorious “executive vertical”.
If the difficulties of the temporal nature to add those that will inevitably arise in the process of managing huge enough lived-in and development of the territory, held down a harsh climate that is difficult to add space, we get the real picture of the objective difficulties that constantly has to deal the Russian government. Essentially it before and now it is necessary to establish cooperation between different eras.
This fundamental problem on the surface of events manifests itself in a different guise. In terms of territory it serves as a regional or national “inconsistencies”;nationally – in the form of ethnic conflict, sometimes taking and religious overtones: the social – contributes largely internal tensions, sometimes even split society into two opposing main forces: “the power and the people.”
Throughout the history of this long-term temporally-spatial problem is solved in different ways. K end of the Russian empire acted fairly complex system of polymorphic control. Largely due to her royal power over a long historical period, transposed into a single state numerous “different time” lands and peoples. However, as the acceleration of non-uniform motion of the external “world” time and multi-speed for the internal time in the vast expanses of Russia fatally unbalanced-formed complex (and vulnerable) system, and with it the existing political regime.
Soviet power, as already mentioned, very intensively tried to implement temporal consolidation of the country. In fact, although the specific techniques after 1917 changed course, the central government has sought both to bring in one economic and political time a diverse territory and peoples of the USSR. To this end, the administrative-command political system, in particular, tried to ensure the accelerated development of backward national republics, “training of national staff” and more. The annual “infusion” in the Soviet republics at the expense of Russia proper in the last years of the Soviet Union, according to some estimates, reached $ 12 billion annually.
In general, and spatial planning, and the “national policy”, and a number of large-scale long-term measures in the USSR pursued the goal of temporal convergence and unification. Soviet Communists ambitious plans failed. However, it is undeniable: much has been done, it deserves an impartial investigation. It is useful to consider both positive and negative experience. Thus, it is interesting that the efforts to unite in a “single time”, according to “accelerate” and other similar events very often lead to unexpected results, contrary to the interests of power. The main threat, however, did not become failures or private paradoxical errors, and the general course of development (ie, the movement of the internal time in the USSR), which is more differentiated for different regions and ethnic groups. (So, a new type of man – “homo Sovieticus” – turned out to be the bearer of such moral and psychological characteristics that are clearly contrary to the original plans of the ideological. The new generation, born under socialism, have shown themselves not as his supporters and defenders, on the contrary, his destroyers.)
Massive economic and other assistance to the national republics and other territorial units of subsidized contributed to their development, but the pace and quality of the processes were very different. Gradually, it is becoming crucial. Accordingly temporal intervals between the Republics and peoples who inhabited them, not only did not decrease, but rather increased romnogih cases. They seem to be more scattered, separated from each other in time.
Not only the developed regions of European Russia began to move away from the Central Asia and the Caucasus, but also between the central part of Russia. The Baltic states and Ukraine has expanded the temporal rift. It has served as a basis for separation of the deep, and then the separation of the. It is logical in this context, that many began to express disappointment in the subsidy policy. It is natural that it started with the most economically developed of the Baltic republics, demanded for themselves “self-supporting” in its relations with other partners in the Union. In Russia itself has increased the desire to get rid of “economic ballast,” stop subsidizing other republics.
The process proceeds as originally temporal, quickly began to turn into a territorial, languidly in the space. The variance in time, as discussed above, as a universal world process, gave a powerful surge in the Soviet space. She quickly destroyed those obstacles with which the Soviet government for a long period of trying to keep these destructive trends. Centrifugal forces broke before apparently single space.
Disintegration of the USSR should be viewed in the broader context so as to reveal the mechanism of the interaction of two major factors – spatial and temporal. Their relationship so closely, even organic, it is quite possible to speak of a “binomial space and time.”
There is no doubt that the space itself in economic and political terms is of great value. This explains the desire to keep having the necessary power to the spatial expansion in a variety of forms. In economic terms, one can consider the space as a kind of special natural resource exploitation which generates income. Moreover, it can be argued that the use of space, as it is necessarily in all kinds of life, predetermines high and unquestionable value of this resource.
In political terms, the sovereign space embodies the broadest sense of the national wealth of the country. Its increase (ie, the spatial expansion) means multiplying the country’s wealth and its power. It is clear that the growth of wealth increases the possibility of rapid development – economic, social and every other. In other words, all things being equal, the spatial power of power provides great opportunities for its faster development. In temporal terms, this same idea would mean that the passage of time can be carried out faster. If we abstract from the particulars, it can be argued that it is this scheme of reasoning generally prevailed as the basis for policy in the international arena. And in our time it is not put into the archive.
Not only an increase in the national space, the establishment of control over foreign spaces, expansion of political influence in other countries, etc. require different financial and other costs. Even the preservation of territories under their sovereignty is only possible if the state will be able to implement the necessary costs and coercive measures, including those related to the management, the maintenance of order, defense. There is a problem, conventionally speaking, the ratio of extractable yield and costs (in the widest sense), in other words a kind of balance of gains and losses.Any responsible government is facing the need to commensurate the benefits that brings possession of the space, or the maintenance of influence on it, and those costs (not only the purely financial) accounting exercise. This problem is very complicated, especially
Despite the difficulties of comparing all the “pros” and “cons”, it can be based on existing experience to express some of the most obvious statements.
There is no doubt that as long as the ownership of space “pays” themselves (of course, in the broad economic, political and other senses), it is advisable to keep possession.If the “price” becomes excessive, the loss of space becomes only a matter of time.Beginning with the Roman Empire, many of the processes of decay of state structures are described in great detail: Spain, Portugal with their overseas possessions, the British and French empires, Austro-Hungary, etc.
It is important to bear in mind that with all the differences of historical examples is the deep effect of temporary factors led to the temporal divergence, “split” between the different parts of the first unified powers. The variance in time quickly found its expression in the emergence of various contradictions and conflicts, which led eventually to a violent, at least – a peaceful solution to the underlying problem.Anyway it began before the collapse of a single space. A similar sequence occurs in the FSU.
It is easy to notice that the time dispersion, both within countries and in the wider international arena greatly enhanced as a result of attempts to reverse the direction of movement of public time itself. These attempts, more or less successful, have become such an obvious fact of international and domestic policy that can not be ignored and need to be explained in terms of temporal theory. In essence we are talking about fundamentalism in the broadest sense of the term.
Under fundamentalism previously understood the conservative religious movement, ultimately to adhere strictly to the Scriptures. Gradually, the concept has been interpreted more broadly. Now widely believed that the fundamentalists are all those who reject in principle the modern life the values and eager to return to the fundamental values of the past.
Such an interpretation of fundamentalism is not accidental. It is generated by the spread of fundamentalist movements of various kinds, of which Islam is the most famous, but not the only ones. In essence, if we consider fundamentalism as a movement that seeks to turn back the course of time, change the “arrow of time” is to include many fundamentalist ideologies and political movements.
Существуют бесспорно фундаменталистские движения, которые сами объявляют себя таковыми и последовательно идут по пути восстановления традиций и норм прошлого. Примером может служить движение, которое осуществило “исламскую революцию” в Иране. Фундаменталистским является движение талибов в соседнем Афганистане. Есть и другие многочисленные примеры – в Алжире, Судане и т.д. Однако наряду с этим сплошь и рядом можно наблюдать деятельность политических и других общественных сил, которая трактуется по-разному, но нуждается в переоценке в свете темпоральной теории.
Perhaps the most complex and bizarre combination of impulses to move forward into the future and kickbacks in the distant past is different Russia (USSR) in the present century. There is no doubt that the revolution of 1917 gave a powerful impetus to the “acceleration time” not only in the USSR but also in many other countries. At the same time in the Soviet Union and other countries, to follow in his footsteps, so much evidence of the return to the past. The use of mass forced labor, serfdom of peasants, workers and experts fixing for certain enterprises, other severe restrictions on human rights writ system of government – all these phenomena are characteristic of the past and have a very clear analogy in Russian history.
Their revival in the XX century. many interpreted as an undeniable return to the past.The concern is that in the Soviet Union, at least in the Stalin period, in fact fundamentalist policies have been, if we understand this term in the broad modern sense. Along the way, you can see that Russia can pretend to be regarded as the birthplace of fundamentalism.
In connection with the phenomenon of fundamentalism, has acquired such great importance in the modern world, there are important issues in the framework of a temporal concept. We mentioned earlier that on the external (global) time noticeably slower movement of inner time in many countries. Now, however, it must be recognized, based on numerous facts, including those relating to the great powers that the internal time of individual countries can not only keep up, but even to stop, and under certain conditions, to move backward. Moreover, the movement in the opposite direction is often a quite conscious purpose of political forces and regimes. Apart from Iran, the most specific example of such a change “arrow of time” may be in the recent past, Cambodia, and even earlier – Nazi Germany and several other countries.
You can, therefore, be concluded that even on the basis of the most ordinary, “simple”, a widespread concept of time, after comparing it with the realities of life must be recognized the ability of “arrow of time” to change its direction.
In international relations, this means that the possibilities are even greater dispersion of countries over time, an even greater expansion of the temporal intervals between them than one would expect on the basis of the usual concepts. Thus, the country too far “off” from the rest, losing completely or partially opportunity normally maintain equal stable relationship with them, at least for the foreseeable future. In essence, there is a possibility of temporal conflict between the two countries.
In practice, this conflict is often resolved by the fact that as a result of internal changes “otbivshayasya” too far from the country returns to the general flow of the time, reducing their temporal separation. But the sharp contrast between the internal time strany- “outsider” and the external time can lead to increased external pressure, resulting in a breakaway country driven into the overall time stream. These two effects – the inner and outer often implemented together.
The overall picture of international life, considered in the light of the temporal concept maps like a rushing stream in the future external, world time, entraining with a country. Accommodation countries in the flow of time is changing: they overtake each other, behind, even coming back around. It was found in a temporal series of easily formed between a group, involving them in the other, “approaching” (in the temporal sense) of the country.
Naturally, the convergence of the countries in the framework of organizations such as the EU, NATO, or the wider informal groups – “North”, “South”, and others, can be directly dictated by the particular economic, political, religious or other motives.However, this convergence will be very much a strong and durable only if the common temporal interests. As countries begin to diverge over time, moving away from each other, the very foundation for equitable relations seems to disappear between. There are problems “older” and “younger” brothers, economic assistance, involving a political influence, or the inevitable confrontation.
Since the movement in time of each country is determined by its internal time, the great practical interest is the question, why is it every now and then as it suspends its move into the future, or even begin to reverse the movement back. It is clear that any movement in time the country is not in itself ( “automatically”), as a result of human activity. Especially remarkable efforts are needed to make the whole country a kind of “turn around” in time by 180 ° and move in the past. What is the cause of this phenomenon quite common in our century, and not only in it?
The explanation lies in the fact that very often during normal driving time from the past to the future of the human condition deteriorated. In particular, such a change adversely manifest themselves during periods of increased speed travel time – both caused by “natural” causes and conscious public policy ( “acceleration” reforms, etc.).
In any case, before the widespread opinion about the absolute wholesomeness of “progress” that is, the flow of time from past to future, in our era is often questioned.In particular, it points to the destruction of nature, threatening major disasters, to reduce the quality of life due to the excessive increase of the rate of development.Even referenced the fact that the ubiquity of electronic media in practice has led to the fact that humanity has become to move from a “television”, “literary culture”, which means a decrease of the level of culture, etc.
Considerable controversy raises questions that are directly related to a specific government policies or abrupt social changes. It also notes that even in undisputed cases, the changes taking place not only bring positive results. In this “balance” of positive and negative is often at least unclear. Not only Russia but the whole world’s history is full of such examples. The reforms of Peter I accompanied innumerable disasters people. The abolition of serfdom in Russia has worsened the lives of many farmers. Stolypin transformation not only had a positive impact and, therefore, cause numerous cases of countering the countryside.
Similar examples can be cited from the experience of foreign countries. Thus, the industrial revolution, that is, the transition from manufactury to machine production in England was carried out with such brutality that their study has convinced Marx of the necessity and even the humanity of forced transformation of the world for the benefit of workers.
With that said, it is not surprising that progress (that is, forward movement time) and can cause really annoys many. That is exactly what happened in Russia at the beginning of this century.
In such cases, the specific question is, how great dissatisfaction and how numerous ranks of people opposed. It is quite clear that in the conditions of social crisis caused by the forward movement, this movement is an attempt to slow down or even reverse it. Such attempts have generally qualified as “reaction” or in the best case as conservative. Using these modern terminology is quite could be considered a fundamentalist.
The Russian experience is particularly rich in examples of almost constant alternation of periods of temporal “jerks” in the future with the periods of time dilation, even stagnation, or even return back. Figuratively speaking, the time moves in Russia, as it were “jerks”, which is accompanied by social evils, material and spiritual losses. What is the reason for this specificity?
Ambiguous consequences especially travel time often create a crisis situation in the State, having multitemporalnuyu structure. It is clear that if, for example, changes relating to the obvious progress in the economy, a beneficial effect on the situation in the developed regions of Russia (Moscow and Leningrad regions), it does not mean the same for the territories of the Far North. Development of market relations after 1992 in the regions of the Russian North had a very negative impact on the majority of economic sectors, the social situation of the population, including the living conditions of small indigenous peoples.
Even small changes in the structure of the industry once the negative impact on entire regions. The first steps towards the privatization of transport companies and market adaptation of the tariffs set in the plight of the vast areas of Siberia and the Far East.This relationship existed and events in the past. So any more or less serious, as they say, “progress” forward affected the interests of the regions and republics (the provinces) and the ethnic groups inhabiting them, which belonged to another era and, accordingly, a different way to respond to temporal changes.
It is this complexity of the structure of Russia is pushing now as in the past, the state power to inhibit or even reverse the refund for the preservation of social peace and stability. In case of failure, the country can be involved in the internal bloody conflict.
Due to the special significance of the phenomenon of revolution, this topic is the subject of research of many scientists and politicians. However, when a very wide variety of opinions retained a common myth of the revolution, which was gradually built around at least two “great” revolutions – the French 1789- 1794 biennium. and Russia in 1917, this myth is dissipated using a temporal approach to the assessment of the actual role of these revolutions and their direct consequences.
The Russian revolution has taken place in a period of rapid economic and social development of the country. The rate of growth of the industry, transport, agriculture in this period of time was a record for all previous and subsequent history of Russia.Therefore, a temporal point of view, there was no need of any abrupt qualitative changes to speed up the economic development of the country. The political regime is also very rapidly liberalized. Absolute monarchy ( “autocracy”) are increasingly ceded power to an elected representative bodies. In the spiritual cultural blossoming during the “silver age” it was also undeniable. Therefore, there is no reason to agree to the fact that the root cause of the revolution was ostensibly the need to open the way for more rapid development of Russia and the liberation of “oppressed” masses.
And the actual results of the revolution were diametrically opposed: the economic development of the country have been suspended at all and then only very slowly, over the years, was resumed. Thus in reality the revolution is not led to the acceleration of internal time movement in Russia, but on the contrary to its inhibition, and in a certain sense – even to move back.
From temporal point of view, the October Revolution was not aimed at the acceleration, not to move forward, but rather its true purpose, “the most important task” was a sharp change in the “arrow of time”. The Revolution completely coped with this task: she turned the wheel of history back and destroy those who generate it, who carried it, and even those who could this just be suspected. In this connection it is necessary to refute the well-known saying that revolution destroys their children.Revolution actually devour their fathers. Plekhanov was saved only that it has emigrated, and besides, he died in 1918, Trotsky also emigrated, but did not die a natural death. The overwhelming majority of the revolutionaries was wiped out.
At the same time it passed the extermination of all who have been personally “involved” to the time of the movement, or what is the same, to the development of Russia’s economy, science and art. There is no need to list the names, especially since many destroyed simply “as a class.” The real “fault” of the kulaks was the fact that they “gave rise to capitalism,” that is able to develop modern agriculture, while the revolutionary government had to restore their true task in the village of medieval serfs orders. The most prominent scientists were extremely dangerous because they have contributed to the progress of science. They had to be eliminated, sent into exile abroad, or by other means “separate” from the work in the specialty.
Innermost secret of the revolution lay in the fact that in reality it was a counter-revolution. One of the sincere revolutionaries who do not understand this, was killed with the illusion that he gave his life for the bright idea of building a society of the future, or as a result of “the machinations of the enemy.”
Many similarities between the two hit the “progressive” revolutions: Russian and French. Some were inclined to explain this similarity is the fact that the Russian revolution has followed the example of the French in many ways. We can not deny a certain reverence ideologues of the October Revolution to the great predecessors, especially in front of Robespierre, but the reason for the similarity is much more serious.
Both revolutions (here, as before, a political revolution is defined as “a sudden and violent overthrow of the established political order”) occurred during periods of very liberal regimes. In other words, violence and even on a large scale took place when it was not necessary. The notorious “third estate” in France and as fast to win himself more and more of the rights of the nobility class broke up into the eyes themselves its representatives have been active, and even the leaders of the forerunners of the revolution -.. awnings Mirabeau, Condorcet, as well as many others. The ideas of humanism prevail over notions of the past. It is widely distributes free-thinking has undermined the former power of the Catholic Church. The capitalist relationship is quickly pushed back the remnants of the feudal system.
In these circumstances, the bloody orgy of 1789-1794. France can not be reasonably explained in terms of the outdated dogmas, which actually justify the cruelty of the revolution. The essence of these justifications is that, say, the revolutionary storm opened the way to progress. These views are false, in fact, everything was the opposite. In fact, if we consider the French Revolution (as well as the revolutionary upheavals in Russia in the first decades of the XX century.) In terms of temporal result, the meaning of these tragedies is quite clear. In general, the devastating results of the violent revolutions and similar political upheaval not only speed, but slow down over time.
According to the inner logic of revolution sweeps away the old regime and its associated social groups (and even whole classes), destroying them as unable to cope with its main mission to control the flow of time. Louis XVI and his court, Emperor Nicholas II and the ruling circles of Russia to the revolutionary catastrophe was “guilty” in the fact. it failed to ensure the proper management of the flow of time.Cruel temporal logic of the process. The most important task of revolutions, as the experience of many countries, is to slow down, stop the flow of time.
Revolution, starting to fulfill its most important task, usually begin like “extinguish” the possibility of the movement of time. This is achieved by the extermination of those who contribute to exceeding the permissible speed of the temporal; a return to the political and social institutions that can help to stop time or to translate it into retrograde motion. Actually the French Revolution instead of freedom gave people the spectacle of mass executions, the establishment of the dictatorship of the first, and then the empire. The orientation of the Ancient Rome, that is, the pre-Christian era, very revealing, not only in the external attributes, but also in the spiritual sphere of social life in France at that time.
In Russia, unlike in many countries, to stop the leap into the future is much more difficult, just as difficult to hold, for example, the movement of heavy objects, okreplennyh single chain. The peculiarity of Russia as a power multitem- poralnoy, shown here in full. That is why the process of “taming” time in our country won a total of an entire era – until 1953
By and large, the restoration of the progressive movement of time as a universal, broad process became fully manifest itself only in the period, which later became known as “stagnant”. Such is Russia. Interestingly, however, that public opinion in our country has given another than the official, the evaluation of the Brezhnev era.The Russians are in the midst of the “shock therapy”, radical reform and other revolutionary changes to the request to specify a period in the life of the fatherland, they consider the most happy, named under Brezhnev. It is clear that they had in mind above all the quality of life. It was during this period of the forward movement of time created the possibility of improving the material welfare of the population, and weakened the ideological control has not prevented the spiritual development of society, the rise of culture. It seemed a great power for all the shortcomings and defects, even standing on the threshold of prosperity.
However, there it was. Again, as in the first decades of the XX century., Quickly began to thicken political clouds. It has been stated about the need to “speed up” the various transformations, etc. Naturally, all these ideas attracted many who received them very sincerely (and on the eve of the revolutionary events of 1917 and 1921. In Russia, as well as before the French Revolution). In reality, however, it began the process of “taming of time” and again under the most progressive and even democratic slogans.What are the results of the conversion period, which began in 1985?
According to many experts. Russia on a number of key areas significantly receded in the past compared to the “starting line” in 1985 is quite typical quote: “… the Company shifted to a previous formational stage, which in this case is feudalism.” The assertion that Russia in many ways back to feudal times, quite often.
As a Russian pullback arguments in the past, among others, and are as follows:
– general and significant reduction in the country’s culture in the broadest sense of the term, including the collapse of education and health, science;
– dehumanizing living conditions – open preaching of violence and its implementation, especially against the weaker (elderly, disabled, children, women);Return to the public mentality of social Darwinism;
– clan-oligarchic structuring of society, created through the use of power, and if necessary with violence. This scheme also includes a section of the former state ownership – privatization;
– the accumulation of capital and the creation of individual states is not in today’s market and civilized market methods, but just as it happened in the past – due to special “powers” (authorized banks), impunity assignments on time (to “scroll” ) or all foreign funds, widespread criminal forms of activity:
– participate in the shadow economy of about half of economic entities, the mass use in the calculation of cash ( “black cash”) and barter transactions.
This list could go on, but this is not necessary, since many relevant facts published in the press and widely known. Nothing is more important to consider – how is the inhibition of social time, or even reverse it in periods of revolutionary progressive changes?
The problem of the internal mechanism of the inhibitory rate, or even change the direction of time is complicated enough as it is – part of the more general topic of “Sources” public time, its generators, its internal structure, beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, even in summary, you can see the basic, which refers to the most relevant practical issues that arise in today’s Russia. At the same time almost immediately refuted by many established myths and misconceptions.
For example, one of the most pressing issues of today concerns the relationship of generations. It is known that the current reforms in Russia, accelerating the whole idea (at the beginning), then democratization and transition to more modern methods of management has been put forward, brought to the public consciousness of the representatives of “the Sixties” and even more mature generations who on the basis of their knowledge and experience came to I found it useful to change.
As soon as “the idea took possession of the masses” and a new policy has been held in life, it is the mature generation became quickly eliminated from the active political and economic life. Older (to use the terminology of the Bolshevik as a “Class”) immediately struck blows of the new government. It is no secret that they have suffered in the first place, when savings were actually confiscated by the state government with the young team of Gaidar. They generally become lose jobs, and then subjected to overt discrimination when filling vacancies. Even earned pension was set at a level that encourages their rapid extinction. However, hostile to the older generation of politicians skillfully masked.
Around 1992 the media are constantly propaganda, which should provide older people as enemies of all new, supporters of the “old and wrong” – communism, etc.Common frames of television chronicles that snatching from the crowd at a rally of old emaciated faces and presenting them in an ugly perspective, demonstrate how, say, repulsive the very sight of these domestic “enemies.” Naturally, when it says nothing about that. It own country, assigned oligarchy created by these nameless and anonymous toilers whose sad wrinkles put them in the same guilt.
It is understood that the cause and effect intentionally and insidiously reversed. At first, the older generations were economically robbed and then discriminated, and when they began to express dissatisfaction with them in the same accused, presenting, as it were, “natural” reactionaries. This disinformation campaign even used the Bible.One hundred frets, persistently repeated in the atheistic interpretation of the story of the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, Moses, he says, led his tribesmen in the desert 40 years specifically in order to extinct all who lived in conditions of slavery. The implication is that we should all become extinct, who lived under the Soviet regime, that in modern Russia could build a happy market society.
It is interesting that the current policy of discrediting the social and even the physical elimination of older generations as two drops of water similar to the policy pursued by the Bolsheviks after the victory of the revolution of 1917. Then all skolko some educated and qualified personnel were enrolled in the category of “former”, and one way or another way eliminated. The same happens in other countries at similar events – revolution or other “acceleration”. The only difference lies in the degree of inhumanity and absurdity.
The meaning of what is happening can not reasonably explain why, as a rule, are used flimsy excuses. In one case, the older generation were declared “white” or other enemies of Soviet power. In another, as already mentioned, they are automatically ranked as the opponents of reform. In general, the familiar methods of propaganda of disinformation to cover up the true goals.
Meanwhile, the temporal approach allows us to understand the logic of this policy. It is. what those generations removed, which generated new ideas that give impetus to move forward, and that, having knowledge and practical experience, are able to realize their progressive ideas. As soon as the generation of “the Sixties”, dissidents and intellectuals will simply eliminated, the historic task can be considered completed. Will only “clean” some miraculously preserved elements. Tools that have been used in order to eliminate from the social life of Sakharov’s generation, Bukovsky, Sinyavsky, Vladimir Maximov and others were different, but the goal is the same – to slow down or even reverse the movement of time.
We should not think that such a phenomenon, that is, active measures but the elimination of the social life of the older generations, characteristic only for Russia.On our memory similar action was held in China. “Cultural Revolution” of the second half of the 60s with all its national color was clearly aims to deal with the older generations. As a result, as might be expected, China has suffered enormous losses: a lot of people killed, the most valuable pictures are lost or temporarily suspended from work. Spiritual and material damage has been enormous. It is only natural that the whole campaign launched by Chairman Mao and his closest associates (the so-called “Gang of Four”, later condemned), was carried out to the accompaniment of the charges of the older generations of all mortal sins. At the same time the main force “
“Cultural Revolution” eventually failed. Its defeat was predetermined not only the damage that it has caused economic, social and political system, but also the fact that it was at odds with centuries-old national traditions of this country, where respect for junior to senior is the norm. It is interesting that later, when the situation returned to normal and experienced personnel have been returned. China began to implement economic reforms, which successfully continues today.
The Chinese experience is quite frankly shows how the regime in an effort to stop the ongoing transformation, resorting to wage the struggle of generations, contrasting young senior, of course, under psevdoprogres- sive slogans. In essence, a temporal point of view, the war between the generations has led to a rollback of the country back into the past. On the contrary, the further renewal of the progressive development of China has become possible when arms were taken completely different idea – the great patriarch of Chinese reforms, Deng Xiaoping. Important was the fact that the restored normal relationship and continuity of generations.
In contrast to the Chinese reforms were carried out, as you know, reforms in Russia.One of the most noticeable differences between the transformations in the 90s was the process quickly “expulsion” of older people from all spheres of public life. The impact of these changes have not gone unnoticed in society. Very vividly writes about it, for example, E. Yampolsky, which indicates that in spite of demographic aging Russian life itself it is increasingly beginning to be perceived as “the inheritance of the Young”. Almost any invitation to work in Russia today have a very tough age limit. on age discrimination introduced everywhere.
If in modern Russia and China’s 60-ies “with senior struggle” differs tough, often violent nature, a long time ago, and quietly carried out in well-civilized countries, persistent discrimination of older people in employment (and dismissal), without causing not only disturbances and even surprise. At the same time in western countries, discrimination on any other grounds – ethnic, religious, even as belonging to any “sexual minority” would have provoked a storm in the media, led to mass demonstrations of the street. In contrast, age discrimination is perceived as something familiar and taken for granted.
What is the reason? The fact that this phenomenon has long existed in the countries of Western civilization – there used to it, it has already become a kind of “part of life”.Meanwhile, there is no doubt that an important condition for the progressive movement of public time is a normal succession of generations and the transfer of knowledge and experience, moral principles and traditions of the older generations younger. It is this “relay race of generations” and provides real time the movement of the public.
However, such an ideal scheme in practice very often gives serious failures. In a (more precisely in the temporal) sense of the history of mankind is replete with clashes between the forces trying to implement moving forward, into the future, and those with mixed success trying to stop the passage of time or even turn it back. In this struggle between generations is important.
The best concepts of social Darwinism often try to push the young and the old, and to destroy, not only in order to quickly take their place in society, but also in order to weaken the ideas that speed at the moment the movement of time. If this, as it were, a “natural” tendency is supported by the public authorities or other political forces. the whole process of social movement of time gives a serious failure. Under current conditions, the maintenance of normal generational change, continuity, prevention of age discrimination was no less of an issue than the social world or preventing ethnic conflict.
Consideration of the actual problems of modern Russia and other countries can draw several conclusions:
– increasing the speed of movement of time, the time variance of the countries seriously complicate the task of maintaining the normal, equal external relations and at the same time enhance the value of the temporal reference;
– laws “binomial space and time” demand from the government continued compliance with the internal and external balance policy between the spatial and temporal interests of Powers;
– sudden changes in speed and direction of movement of temporary streams are fraught with negative changes in the life of the masses, causing at the same time new temporal disasters;
– Any large-scale revolutionary changes, leading to a major material and spiritual losses, the more loss of life, adversely affect the movement of time, often leading to a retreat into the past;
– a mechanism for providing a normal time in his public value, can operate successfully only if harmonious interaction and the succession of generations, maximum use of the knowledge and experience of mature generations;
– the ability of public authorities to monitor the movement of temporary streams, in their human dimension, and manage them in the interest of the country is the most important criterion of capacity of the government and the very meaning of its existence.