More recently, the concept of “human factor” is enclosed in quotes, thus emphasizing that the person, the human society can not be equated with other factors considered on a par with them. The role of human priori perceived as a major center, which determines the development of the social system. The genesis of this approach, however – not so much scientific as a mythological character. Meanwhile, a few issues are so many polar contradictory judgments, as the question of man himself.
By the beginning of this century, the respect for the human person, faith in its limitless possibilities have been widely recognized. The famous Gorky: “Man – it sounds good!” Expresses the opinion of many.
But the reality, especially the two world wars, mass repression and a number of other events of the century revealed the worst human vices and weaknesses. In the middle of the century, the famous French writer Robert Merle asked what he considers the most important phenomenon of the present time, said: “The disappearance of the man”, referring to the loss of their best people, “human” qualities. Nevertheless, the social sciences, for understandable reasons, continue to treat the person with the highest reverence.
The study of the human factor within metastrategii inevitably involves correlating it with the basic concepts of space and time. The very meaning of the theme dictates the following questions:
– What are the nature and extent of human exposure to space and time, forming it as a subject of public relations;
– how free people in their decision-making and, consequently, what are the realpossibilities of its impact on the spatial and temporal factors.
Posing these questions reveals the specifics of the new approaches. The localization problem of the “human factor” is intended a priori rejection of the recognition that a person occupies a central place in the study of relations system.Answers can only give the study of human relationships with space and time. Thus, in accordance with the very meaning of the concept of meta-strategic relations between man and space are considered in unity with the time factor. Even in those cases where it is unity for one reason or another is not declared or not is the subject of discussion, it will certainly have in mind.
Usually the question on the impact of space per person in its traditional formulation is based on the existence of man in space in the area of natural habitat, “the environment”. In this case, the foreground environmental aspects. Obviously, this approach is not completely avoided, given the diversity of topics. However, you must bear in mind that man is a part of the space in which it exists. Therefore, conventional judgment on the effect of the surrounding space human conventionally.Apparently, no less legitimate to raise the question of how that part of space which “is a man”, organically linked, merged with the surrounding exterior space – the area, region, country, continent. The problem of identity and differences between man (and thus human collective society)
In each case it is necessary to choose the scale, but almost – the size of the external space. Usually in politics it is limited to the borders of the country. However, depending on the specific objectives of the study within the constraints may include: the ethnic area (eg, Chechnya, Northern Ireland, etc.), natural and geographical conditions (the Arctic, tropical zone, etc.), and so forth.
However apoiopno gtpr.lpt 1 yagyart ( ‘and r »™ *», – ,. » initial impact of space on the human, since man appeared after the space, developing in him, with him, acquiring certain qualities, fixing them in heredity under the influence of existing space. Taking into account that a person can be considered as a tiny part of the huge space in which it exists, the initial hegemony of space is obvious. However, in the future people have already experienced the effects of the space itself all voey activity affects the world around us.
Consider the simplified diagram of a person and the interaction space: space with its general and specific terms and conditions, quantitative and qualitative characteristics – natural and geographical conditions – social development background – the basic thinking patterns – behavioral effects – effects on oneself and the surrounding world, that is, in the final end of space and time.
General scheme logic can reveal both opportunities and limits of purposeful human impact on the basic factors of their social existence. It is clear that it is necessary for purely practical conclusions.
Research carried out within the framework of issues such as “Man and the geographical environment”, “Man and Nature” and others have long recognized the impact of natural and geographical factors on the person. Metastrategiya takes into account existing strengths, but is not limited to the traditional approach. New, in particular, is that the initial act very broad concept of space and time, and, therefore, the study goes beyond the traditional issues.
The theme of the influence of space per person, the society, the specific nations covers a very wide range of issues. It is a question of national, cultural, including language, information space. With this approach, there are great opportunities for understanding the specific options depending on spatial factors, which determine the main directions of development of a human community, the ethnic group. In other words, it becomes possible to disclose the formation of logic “framework conditions”, in which this process takes place.
One of the obvious questions that arise in this context, is the size of the national space occupied by one or another ethnic group. The scale space largely determine the political, economic and general cultural destiny of the peoples and states. An example of Russia, which is well within the global experience, is quite revealing.
The colossal size of the space, united in one state, provides a huge economic opportunities, defining at the same time complex, ambiguous consequences. The defense relationships huge territory allowed the Russians to wear down the enemy, destroy his communications, to strike at its bases, etc. In general, the enemy, who decided to invade Russia was as if doomed to “disappear” on its open spaces. Space itself, along with the climate is an active ally of Russia in the defense against enemies.The complex of these factors contributed to the formation of the psychological atmosphere of independence, identity and ‘special’ as ideological principles. The belief in the need for “special path” did not come out of nowhere. There is no doubt that the age-old view shows how the extent of influence of space,
However, the same space in the emerging general framework of development influenced the formation of Russian statehood, social conditions, that is, the common destiny of the peoples of the country, generating sometimes very heavy responsibilities.
Huge, dramatically different in terms of nature areas is extremely complicated management of the country. Suffice it to recall that a few centuries ago, for delivery to Russia the outskirts of the major directions of the capital required months.Remoteness, even a certain isolation of the Russian provinces (which is most of the country) was the cause of poor handling vast territory, their “disobedience,” the trend towards separatism.
In an effort to overcome this is not eliminated for the time being flaw, the central authorities are tightening their requirements, introduced harsh laws. In turn, the “Province”, in other words, the majority of the population resorts to the main means available to them – evade law enforcement. This creates a situation aptly formulated by Saltykov-Shchedrin, in which the people softens the extreme rigor of the laws of their failure. As a result of legal nihilism becomes a phenomenon characteristic of the mentality of domestic and affects almost all aspects of Russian life.
The most important consequences of the enormity of the public space for the destinies of peoples living in Russia, are the logistics conditions. It is known that the greater the distance, which has to be transported loads and passages pit, the higher the transportation cost. A country with such a vast territory as Russia, at this point is at a disadvantage. Shipping costs are not only finished products but also raw materials, fuel, materials over long distances increase the cost of production.
This is an objective fact which is like a “pay-per-space”, is well known, for example, in Russia’s foreign trade, as it negatively affects the price competitiveness of domestic exporters. In the intra-ways, these additional costs are hidden because of the specific market conditions (formerly socialist, post-Soviet Russia is now strained market).
The acuteness of this problem requires the state intervention is not only narrowly in the transport sector, but also more broadly – in the economy, and it becomes an additional powerful incentive to ensure that the state’s role in the “space organization”, the creation of appropriate infrastructure was seen as vital. Generation of people growing up in the belief (well-founded), the value is undeniable state, among other things, also because this is it and it alone is able to organize the space, that is to make it suitable for a tolerable life. In psychological stereotypes of Russian state is fixed as an active mediator between people and places.
If in matters of national defense course acts as a defender of the Motherland (homogeneous space), and before that as a “collector of za- stranded,” meaning strength, actually forming, creating the country (domestic space), further to the fore the role of the state as intermediary between people and places. An example from the field of dynamic space usage (and transportation logistics) – only one of the most visible.
It is clear that any country faced with problems of “payment for the space,” and the need to organize the space. However, Russia as a major power in the history of forced to solve particularly complex issues, and in this sense, its problems are often closer to global, rather than those facing other single country.
One of the important psychological consequences of this is a special, specifically formed, the “universal” consciousness of Russians. Life in power, spatially (size, diversity, etc.) is like a scaled-down model of the world, which inevitably contributed to the identification of the Russian
with the world. Spatial characteristics such as: “USSR – 1/6 of the land” is not accidental. For the Russian thinking is characteristic of planetary mapping. The idea at the beginning of the world revolution, and then “the victory of socialism in the world,” as it were, naturally “fit” in the psychology of the people, because they saw themselves as an integral part of much of the world – Russia. It is clear that the world – the only part of a larger (whole) world, planet Earth. The scale of spatial thinking and generates temporal conclusions. “Moscow – the Third Rome” – a vivid example.
Another spatial characteristic of the country (along with the size) is its location in the system of geographical coordinates and other. The consequences of the economic, common cultural, historical (ie, temporal) are obvious.
Of course, for example, that Russia located in a relatively remote from the major the most developed regions (in the past from the Mediterranean, followed by Western Europe and North America) has created and creates a still substantial economic and organizational challenges for the deployment of relations with those countries that are leaders in the field of economy .
In general, the impact of space on social conditions, complicated by a number of other circumstances in the whole history of the people and passes numerous intermediate stages. For example, in Russia large areas and distances on the one hand, slowed the development process, making it “more expensive” than, for example, with Western countries, and on the other – the constant availability of land pushed for extensive development, more “natural” almost more appropriate in this situation.Extensive predominantly course of development gradually formed not only the “material,” the fate of the Russian people, but also psychology, passed on from generation to generation, certain patterns of thinking and behavior.
Natural (natural) and artificial (by human labor) components of the space have a powerful impact on Liu dei. Harsh natural conditions in most parts of Russia affect the overall progress of the development of Russian society, on how evolved the prevailing types and methods of management, ownership, relation to it of various population groups, etc. All this and much more is actually determined by the psychology of the people.
Experts rightly point out that the harsh natural conditions in Russia gradually developed the simplicity of the national character, courageous, even quiet ogno-
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shenie difficulties, as something inevitable. Largely because of these qualities, despite the harsh conditions and in spite of them, there was a huge, many-sided power, which has become one of the leading countries in the world. Moreover, in the XX century.The Soviet Union was one of the two superpowers and was able to resist for a few decades, a coalition of economically most developed countries of the world ( “capitalist camp”).
In the inner life of the country, this is the Russian mentality in no small measure contributed to the long-suffering people, to material hardships, as well as the brutality and even the follies of the authorities. In this, however, and the reason for the country’s stability, even during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, Peter I, or in some periods of the century. We are talking about the phenomenon of “the silent people,” to use the familiar expression AS Pushkin.
As part of the influence of the spatial conditions at the overall “destiny” of the country it is important to pay attention to the coincidence of vectors acting in the same direction. Such a coincidence, or rather the combination, enhances the final effect. For example, in Russia the braking effect is caused by the cumulative impact of a huge territory, their presence away from the world’s major centers of development, severe environmental conditions and numerous consequences of these factors, including the weakness of the Russian space relations with other (foreign).Occasionally manifesting itself a tendency to self-sufficiency and, more broadly, in the cultural sense, desire for “self-sufficiency” is a natural consequence of these reasons.
It is clear that there are a number of circumstances, mitigating operating properly.One of them mentioned. This “help” the vast spaces in the defense of the country.Other-beneficial influence exerted enormous natural resources, mineral and biological. However, we should not forget that the very existence of Russia’s wealth is a consequence of the reason lies in the scale of Russia’s state space.
The question of the influence of space per person, on the fate of entire nations reveals another important fact – the relationship between spatial and temporal effects.
Specific spatial factors have been shown in a number of examples, accelerate or, on the contrary, slow down the development of entire peoples, affect and often determine the ways and forms of development – economic, social, and general culture. But the most important is that
plane forming a common inner face of people, gradually over centuries creates behavioral standards and patterns of thinking, establishes the basic characteristics in the genetic code, which is transmitted from generation to generation. These properties and stereotypes gradually changed and adjusted as a function of the natural and social environment in which a given human community lives.
Even if we take the position that the space can be regarded as a “matrix” in which the encoded background velocity and directions of development in the country, it is unlikely that will be enough to deal with practical questions posed above.
Indeed, the vast factual material indicates that the space not only has a decisive influence on the person, his behavioral standards, but also programs in the future specific situations arising from the specificity of the national space.
Referring to the example of Russia. An amazing phenomenon of Russian public life, is directly related not only to social conditions, but also to the influence of space – a very complex conflict of the relationship between government and people. In essence, the problem of “the power and the people,” or, more broadly, “tops and bottoms” runs through the whole history of Russia. Although it is perceived as a temporal, but basically is an organic space.
Above stated on a number of consequences of owning a large space with a harsh climate and remoteness (the North, Siberia and the Far East, etc..) From the main centers of the country and foreign countries. Among the specific properties of the problem – the need for the government to bear heavy costs, not only the control itself, but also to maintain the economic life and social assistance. This imposes an additional burden on the entire country and forcing the government to take on large-scale redistributive function, imposing – implicitly and explicitly – overtax the population. In itself, this causes discontent, especially among the poor.
However, the need to manage vast territories (meaning by this all functions, including economic) inevitably means the creation and maintenance of large and expensive bureaucracy, so to speak, “the authorities.” People usually perceive these officials like freeloaders. Since how long ago proved
Adjustment knobL-known truth) bureaucracy has a constant tendency to increase, the result is a steady increase in society parasitic layers. Accordingly, the opposition of the population increases, primarily engaged in the production sectors. Migrant acquire a visible ground for a confrontation with the authorities, more widely with the “exploiters” in general, which are beginning to see the source of all the troubles and tribulations. And this is the ideal situation for disobedience, failure to laws and regulations, massive theft as a form of social protest. In periods of exacerbation revolutionary situation arises. In this case, the current specific reasons (deterioration of the socio-economic situation in Russia during the war with Japan in 1904-1905., The First World War of 1914-1918., And others.) Are often perceived as the only,
Thus, the impact of space, if we talk about the historical fate of Russia, paradoxically, leads to two coexisting effects in the field of social psychology: stability ( “passive”) and the social reaction to the steady opposition to any authority.
In general, the most difficult conditions Russia made almost inevitable the formation of a strong government, since otherwise the very existence of the state is problematic.
With the weakening (including the “democratization”), the authorities have a situation where a latent centrifugal forces are not opposed to adequate deterrence by the politically powerful center. That is why whenever the Russian authorities, for whatever reason, weakened, immediately began the process of decay. So it was back in the pre-Petrine times, then in the period after the collapse of the Empire in February 1917 and again at the end of this century.
These destructive processes not only say that spatial institutional factors determine the basic parameters of political regimes, but also that they model the very specific nature of the socio-economic situations and conflicts in the country.
It is clear that, to extend its authority, “towns and villages”, each a strong regime aims to further strengthen the independence of his people, to minimize their accountability. Russian political regime is also subject to this general rule, and formed their own very strong tradition. Naturally, this had an impact on the psychology of power, on its relation to its
th people. Preserved abundant evidence relating to and distant and the recent past.Ivan the Terrible, the idol of many supporters of a strong government, was direct and concise: “My people – a drunkard and a thief.” IN AND. Lenin (in words) was less severe, but still called the people, “a nation of Oblomov.” IV Stalin was by nature cautious on saying, but in fact, in everyday politics proved to be a true Leninist, far surpassed the teacher.
At present, the era of democratic manners softened considerably. However, the traditional scheme of relations “extras” – the “lower classes” remained, taking, however, sometimes indulgent form, not devoid of a certain benevolence. Thus, in public, for the whole country, the discussion of reforms, when the powers that be had directly asked that it not be better to carry out reforms in Russia, using the experience of China, one of the leaders regretfully said: “Where do we find so many Chinese people? “. This is an indication that the Russians in many respects, “not up” to the level of the Chinese, was greeted those present with the full understanding and sympathy for the difficulties the authorities.
I must say that the people, for their part, too, traditionally does not favor “top” in general. In particular, this eloquent folk proverbs, which are rightly considered as an expression of public opinion. Particularly interesting formulations expressing the national stereotypes of thinking embodied in the minds because of centuries-old experience and interpret the social problems, so to say “eternal” nature. As examples aphorisms, firstly, on the legal and moral lawlessness and, secondly, about the source of enrichment.
The phrase “Before God high, far to the king” is not only states with philosophical calmness permanent situation, but also contains some analytical assessment. It is noteworthy that proverb intuitively, but correctly identifies the root cause of the inability of authorities to keep zakonoporyadok – “far.” You can not refuse “lows” in fairness. In essence, they recognize the objective role of distance, not imposing anyone, so to speak, “personal” responsibility for the prevailing injustice.
Is crucial steady Russians view on the specifics of the manner in which wealth is achieved in Russia: “From the works of the righteous will not acquire chambers stone.” Moral conviction is expressed quite clearly.
The causal relationship leads, as these examples show, a very specific characteristic situations. Thus, the conviction that it is impossible to do justice neither from God nor from the king, or, in other words, you can not count on either the church or the state, directs the initiative of the masses on the other path.
The quiet years social discontent expressed by witty words, “the only kind of protest possible in Russia, – embezzlement of public funds.” It would be better, however, to say that in our country is constantly spontaneous process of social compensation, mass and unauthorized redistribution of social wealth. It is clear that the revolutionary aggravation of this process becomes widespread and destructive. In October 1917, with its slogan: “Rob the robbers” – is a classic.
Thus, the causal relationship, the initial factor which is very basic category of space, very clearly defined and specific situations developing in the course of development of the country and specific psychological-behavioral response of the population to these situations. Especially, when the latter are essentially random, but quite familiar, even chronic in nature.
For all the significance considerations related to the impact of space per person, you must, of course, recognize that they were forced to start from the premise that each person or a certain community of people born in the already defined spatial and temporal conditions. Meanwhile, in the course of its development, people seek to improve these conditions, making their surroundings more comfortable. At the same time possible a transition to another ( “best”) space, or improvement ( “perestroika”) of its space.
In other words, if a person is “unhappy” their space, he can either leave it, or try to change, to “improve” it. Of course, if we are talking about a particular person, it is a question only of his personal fortune. However, when it comes to large teams, entire nations, there are problems relating to metastrategii.
At the same time people are taking the decision to change the space, encounter difficulties not only practical, “domestic”, but also the fundamental order. These circumstances relate to the concepts of space and time.
We have already said that the man – a part of the space. This is true in relation to the space in general and very specific space. In one of the most popular songs of the first thought is expressed in an accessible form. It says: “We – the children of the galaxy …”. But it is equally true that we are all children of a particular area: country, region, city, village – “small country”. If we refer to the example in the works of art that characterize the human connection with “his” particular space, we can quote almost any Russian classics. Take AS Pushkin: “We have a world of a foreign land, the fatherland us – Tsarskoye Selo.”
However, if the concept of “homeland” is perceived primarily as a place of birth and the life of man, it is the fact that here were born and lived the life of his parents, his ancestors were in fact no less important. More precisely, this gnomic again mentioned in the same AS Pushkin – “the love of paternal graves”. Here, in fact, we are talking about the time, about the time factor. Homeland perceived as a specific time-space perspective. By the way, this definition does not repeatedly confirmed in practice. So, in our time in Yugoslavia, where the Serbs were forced to leave the power of their places of origin, where previous generations have lived for centuries, people took them as the most valuable remains of their ancestors. Thus, they took with them and the past of their country, that is a specific space with the past tense.
It is natural that human attachment to the mother space more strongly than the direct, closer he (man) is associated with the space than tangibly surroundings for him, “a small country”. Not by chance it is the peasants traditionally associated directly with the land, with a specific, usually only a lifelong space (rural, village, parish), is considered the standard of patriotism. However, times change, and with them are changing, not only we, but also our specific space. There is a problem changing the native space, sometimes equivalent to its loss.
Man, not just emerging from generation to generation under the influence of a particular space, but is essentially a part of it, of course tied to this space many ties: physiological, social, psychological. It is clear that the changes occurring in the environment, often perceived suspicion, or simply fear.
THE HUMAN FACTOR IN METASTRATEGII
Anxiety is the stronger, the closer and more directly linked to the living conditions of people with the environment, depends on it. It is obvious that in the past, the traditional way of this relationship was perceived more acutely than in the future, when people found themselves more independent from the outside world. Actually, this is a concern and a source of conservatism, which often put the blame in the peasantry, talking about his “conservatism”.
Already in the distant past, the desire to save space, protect it against change is often perceived as a need to protect the space from his eternal enemy – time. Ancient Egyptians built gigantic pyramid as a symbol of the inviolability of space. Hence the famous statement that “even the time fears the pyramids.” People sought to demonstrate the eternity of space, its superiority over time. Upcoming changes to many dangers, troubles, death finally seen as the essence of time. Protection of space, in this sense, – that self-defense is the person from time to time.
The construction of the pyramids in Egypt and South America can be interpreted as a heroic and almost insane attempt to entire generations to stop time, or at least to consolidate itself in any particular period of time, do not allow the temporal flow to carry away with him into the unknown outside world, specifically, his native area.However, this titanic struggle was doomed. Time continued its movement, and there were people who realized this.
Exodus from Egypt as described in the Bible, can be seen as an example of a conscious break people from their former space. This is the story of people to abandon the construction of the pyramids, from trying to “stop time”. Awareness of the need to move forward, leaving the former space, and thus from the past meant the choice of a fundamentally new way. People reshivshiesya this, go “another way”, through the desert, through the parted sea and many misfortunes. However, this is a different topic related primarily not to the spatial and to the temporal factor and the virtual world.
Meanwhile, any significant “exodus” of people, they move to another locality, state, country, continent to another leads to important consequences. People changing space for themselves at the same time changing the space for the other, for those who remain in the same place, and for those who live in the new.
After Columbus discovered the American continent immigrants from Europe who volunteered, who were forced to radically changed the space, and thus the fate.However, they have contributed to the change of space, especially in America, and as a result have created the conditions for the formation of the American continent more peoples. This phenomenon is of universal significance.
With all that to change in the space causes any movement of people, the problem of direct, often focused on the impact of space is also very important and deserve special consideration.
By and large, any human life activity changes the space. Sure, it was noticed by people at the dawn of their existence and often caused them concern. Very concerned about the preservation of their particular area, many ethnic groups worked out the rules of the relationship with the environment, nature, animals ( “younger brothers”), at the same time trying to formulate rules and to “owners” of space – the pagan deities. This is reflected in mythology and – more broadly – in the cultural traditions of many peoples, which is especially noticeable in the case of customs nationalities living in the same conditions as their ancestors: the Indians of the Amazon Valley, Australian Aborigines, many peoples of India, etc .
Serious problems “involuntary” impact on the environment, and more generally – in the space as a whole is very strained due to the rapid development of science and technology, and rapid population growth. Having well-founded fear of global warming and other climatic changes, the emergence of the ozone hole, air and water pollution.Under the threat of destruction of entire ecosystems were, for example, in the Far North of Russia. Almost killed the Aral Sea. There are other similar facts.
At the same time a radical change in the characteristics of a particular area or even globally the whole planet could happen not only because of the human impact on the environment or due to natural changes and disasters. Man changes the space and means of foreign and domestic policy. The liquidation of the Soviet Union and post-Soviet space section between the new sovereign States may be an example of direct exposure to space through political means.
The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the disintegration of the first common space, that is, to change the size, radical change in the relationship of individual parts of the space, both Russian and post-Soviet as a whole. Steel and other communications with foreign countries. At the same time began breaking the previous spatial infrastructure in the territory of the Soviet Union crushed – industrial, social, transport, information, every other. Catastrophic consequences of the collapse of the cultural, linguistic space.
The political impact of humans on the space is not always carried out relatively peacefully. Used during the war military actions can become good examples of very direct, sometimes primitive interaction “people space”.
Among the classic examples of which abound in the story – barbarian invasion of Rome. While Rome ruled the vast Lusitania from the west to the Rhine and Thrace in the east, to preserve and promote Roman, ancient culture in the broadest sense of the word. The weakening of the Roman rule and fall under the pressure of barbarian tribes led to the fact that Europe was ruled by Germans, Sarmatians, and other nationalities. The political map of the continent, in modern parlance, was redrawn.But it is not only political. Fundamentally change the European public space in the sense of the term. The further development of Europe’s happened already in other conditions. In particular, the pace was very slow for many centuries, until the Renaissance. In other words, the accident,
However, no less, and evidence of the limits that restrict rights. In particular, military history shows very clearly not only the human impact on the space, but also its dependence, sometimes fatal, from space, or rather limited ability of human “subdue” his space.
Take the most famous events. For example, Napoleon’s history as a military leader.Everyone knows the many victories of the French general, later Emperor, which are considered as examples of the art of war. However, there are no less significant defeat, and on the scale of entire companies. It ended in failure French expedition of 1798-1799 years. in Egypt. Failure ended the invasion of Spain in 1808, the defeat of Napoleon comprehended in 1812 in Russia.
Without belittling the art Russian generals: Barclay de Tolly, MI Kutuzov and others, the courage of the Russian soldiers, we can not forget about the common cause of failure of all three campaigns. It is that Napoleon had not been able to establish dominance over the corresponding spaces. The weakening of ties with major bases in France was one of the reasons for its defeat. Not accidentally successful wars of Napoleon geographically were severely restricted: in the west – the Pyrenees, in the north – sea coast of France, in the south – the Mediterranean Sea, in the east – the borders, beyond which there are open spaces of Russia. Neither the XIX, or in X centuries of foreign invaders were unable to military, economic and other, in order to establish their dominance over such spaces, especially in order to “absorb”, absorb them.
This raises a very serious question about the qualities that should have someone who can claim to be like. In other words, the question about the qualities belonging to the most “human factor”, that the latter should have to fulfill the historical mission of “gathering lands”, ie the association under his rule vast areas.
In general (without regard to Russia), the process of territorial expansion demands from ethnic groups, starting large-scale conquest, dynamism. It is the dynamism of two kinds – in real space and in psychology.
Already in the past it has shown itself exponential difference between the nomadic and sedentary people or at least those that are more related to the movements in space (using the dynamic space – in terms metastrategii). That is why, especially in the past, the nomads (Huns, Mongols, Arabs) serves as a cementing human material for rapid unification under his rule a vast territory. The rapid conquest of Attila, Genghis Khan, and the caliphs – only part of the examples.
The so-called “sea” of the nation played in the history of capturing vast lands, including overseas, the same prominent role as nomads in the union territories of land. The foundation of Carthage by Phoenician sailors on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and Spain, the story of the Norman campaigns, the creation of Spain, Portugal, Britain, Holland, a vast empire with holdings in other continents indicate that the active participants of these events have been prepared such movements in the space physically and psychologically material. In other words, we are talking about the fact that expansion, especially when it comes to large spaces requires dynamism not only in real, but in the virtual space. People are expanding internally, so to speak, “spiritual”, must be prepared to change your space into a new, before the former for them strangers.
Thus, the powerful impact of humans on the space can be attributed to two reasons groups: normal life, or with extraordinary events (large movements of human masses – “migration of peoples”, conquests).
Mass migration, regardless of whether they are accompanied by violence or not, are defined as “horizontal expansion”. Meanwhile, if we compare such movement “horizontally” on the one hand, with wide social disruption (movements “vertical”), on the other, between them can detect specific internal relationship.
Those and other large-scale phenomena are caused by a powerful desire to masses of people to radically change their lives, to break out of its previous space in the new, even how to go into a new dimension. It is possible to either move physically in a different space, sailed across the Atlantic, for example, in the New World by building on the “scratch” a new life, creating a new country ( “horizontal movement”), either in a revolutionary way to “cleanse” their original space of all that does not satisfy. This actually numerous slogans such as “We are all, we are old world razed to the ground, and then …”
“Internationale,” the words on the subconscious level have a deeper meaning than it may seem purely rational criticism. Behind grandiloquent pathos concealed suddenly pull up from the very depths of the human soul longing to change the world, to remake life. Social upheaval, the move “vertically”, first of all, affect the flow of time. People are hungry for the arrival of another time, another “epoch”: the socialist, democratic, in a word, “a bright future”.
The origin, the implementation and consequences of profound social upheaval, of course, can not affect the space, but for the most part it is a sphere of temporal processes.
Mankind throughout his sous-pootyazhenii-existence trying to improve their living conditions. This may be an evolutionary
tending to make leads to social upheaval that dramatically changed the situation in the society, behavioral guidelines masses of people, their psychology. In other words, if an ordinary human activity is gradually changing the space, and therefore affects the time, dramatic human intervention in the course of social development radically affects the temporal flow. Experience shows that such a temporary change in the force flow may ultimately lead to unexpected results.
The study of the specific nature of the impact and its consequences is essential for the development of large-scale long-term national strategy.
“You wake up one morning and discover that the world, which for years was seen as the background of your life changed. Everything that you are accustomed to, it is quite different. And in record time … “These are the words from the article by Professor PS Gurevich of the so-called “shock futuro-” (Nezavisimaya Gazeta, May 27, 1997).
The well-known American sociologist A. Toffler Future Shock defines as a radical acceleration of life under the influence of the rapid development of science, technology and informatics. Numerous consequences of this phenomenon create a hard psychological problem for generations – the problem of adaptation to the rapid changes taking place. It is clear that the Future Shock – only one kind of powerful temporal effects on human psychology, the whole image of his life.
The whole of humanity and in the past has repeatedly faced with both a sharp acceleration of the speed of the temporal flow, and with their slowing, and even with the change of time’s arrow. The consequences of such a change, as a rule, significantly changed the fate of entire nations, and these effects were often disastrous. Temporal changes initiated in fact by the man himself, could emerge as a broad social changes (such as the French bourgeois revolution of the XVIII century. And the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, and many other historical events).
However, the history of mankind is replete with temporary disasters that were caused by the intervention of another kind in the ordinary evolutionary course of events. This intervention was carried out by people who set themselves specific, concrete goals. However, the end result of their actions have
unforeseen, beyond the immediate vital interests and even skolko some plausible assumptions, the people of that era.
The conquest of the barbarians of the Roman Empire led to the collapse of the hated occupation. However, in the long run it ended up a cultural regression, set back reversing the peoples of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. For Russia, the negative role played by the Mongol-Tatar yoke 1243-1480 gg., Which, admittedly, was a brake on its economic, political and cultural development.
Contentious issue remains the influence of modern peaceful “invasion” of Europe on the many millions of immigrants. Official data very incompletely reflect the scale of emigration flows. However, they are impressive. According to statistics from the OECD, Germany is home to 5.3 million immigrants, including 2 million Turks in France -… 2.3 million people, of whom two-thirds – came from the Maghreb (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), in the UK – 1.3 million. emigrantov- non-Europeans. a quarter of them are natives of Southeast Asia, etc.
Even more significant events related to the collapse of the Soviet Union and disasters in the vast region from the Balkans to Afghanistan. As a result of the psychological “supershoka” was destabilized by social psychology of millions of people, essentially “knocked out” of the old temporal flows.
When it comes to the present, usually pay attention to legkorazlichimye immediate consequences: ethnic and confessional. In reality we are faced here with powerful deep processes. Displacement occur spatial characteristics, they are transferred not only from one region to another and even from continent to continent. Of course, this can not change the psychological matrix of people and their behavioral standards.Temporal effects are already being felt, and in the future will be crucial in shaping the image of people, not only in Europe but also far beyond its borders.
Thus, there is a grand-scale process, when the spontaneous mass movement of people has a radical “disturbing” effect on the specific space, the temporal flow, and consequently on the people themselves: their psychology, the scale of life values obpaz life, behavior, even appearance. There are facts conceptually settings politicians and governments devaluing elaborate programs and solutions.And most importantly, this is just one such example.
If the normal course of time means a gradual change, swings, often initiated by the people themselves, radically changing space and time, and with them, and the man himself. At the same time there are disasters with devastating consequences.
Strictly speaking, any change of space, including in particular initiated by people affects a person in many ways. Thus, the work of Russian scientists from the Institute of Biophysics of the Ministry of Health have shown in particular that in the embryonic stage of development of any person is completely vulnerable to external “agents” that distort the structure of its neuro-immune-endocrine regulation.
Research of Russian scientists, as well as the author of the report published by the US National Research Council, confirms “universal” the vulnerability of the nervous system of the future offspring. At the same time, scientists have come to an important conclusion: “Harmful almost everything that distinguishes them from the natural environment today.” In the framework of these studies confirmed behavioral disorders under the influence of harmful external effects and recognized the far-reaching social consequences. For example, explicitly states that the behavior of modern man for this reason reduced social and spiritual principle that there is a tendency to asotsializatsii and dehumanization of society. It is assumed that the continuation of this process will be threatened by each new generation.
These works, as well as those related to the modern “Future Shock”, highly valuable in themselves. However metastrategiche- Skog analysis of human exposure to the space problems, and hence the time required broader approach. In this regard, consideration is inappropriate to limit the questions raised by us only for today, but the influence of the surrounding space per person – only pathology, albeit very generally understood.
In general, the current acceleration of the temporal flow is not only very clearly shows the danger that it brings to mankind, but also helped to focus attention on the specific sources of temporal change. not roofing
mediocre on acceleration, deceleration, change the direction of time, but also the impact
time) eventually deforms the temporal flow.
The experience of Russia and other countries shows that the results are often disastrous. Example – the current collapse of the Soviet Union and its consequences.It is very important that these ambivalent consequences are immediately reflected in the people themselves, the stereotype of their thinking, their behavioral standards.
Society, political movements, the authors of the concepts can set goals for the foreseeable future, with varying degrees of success. However, when the force of their impact on the depth of space and time factors exceeds a certain line, a chain reaction of consequences almost immediately reflected on the people, their psychology and behavior. It appears as if new people with a different fate. In our country, this reduced model of the international community, such classic examples can be regarded as the formation of “the Soviet people” (the quotes are by no means in an ironic sense), “new Russian”.
It is clear that one of the results of these changes is that the new generations begin to think and act at times of a sudden (including for their physical and spiritual parents). The growing problem of “fathers and sons”, the situation in society often become “unpredictable.” Familiar picture, which once again confirms that people are rarely sufficiently careful in its relations with space and time. Especially with the latter, because the time may well be regarded as a source of increased danger in relation to space, and consequently, to a man.
However, if the maxim “Do not we choose the time and the time chooses us” and is true, then it should significantly complement. People, at least in part, to “create”, or rather “are creating” social time. Accordingly, they should be aware of the full measure of responsibility for their actions, causing radical changes in the temporal flow.
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Thus, a person in a complex system of its relationships with space and time heavily exposed to these categories. The role of space in determining the overall “framework” conditions for the development of specific human communities and even in the “programming” of social situations is obvious. Space, being in constant temporal movement acting directly, physically and through social mechanisms, generates psychological stereotypes and standards of behavior. In these complex and delicate processes more categorically it invades people.
The multi-activation of human activity are increasingly affected by space and time.Thus changes in speed, direction and quality characteristics temporary streams act as a powerful additional reason distorting space.
Finite and usually the results are ambivalent on the man himself, changing his psychology, the spiritual world, lifestyle, physical condition, etc. Unpredictable and radical nature of many consequences not only causes destructive cataclysms national and international scale, but also the gradual transformation of the deep that some scientists describe as the emergence of “mutant” societies.
In the current situation of the mobile amorphous changing systems can hardly be regarded as the central human factor and especially as an independent in its relationship with basic categories of space and time. On the contrary, the development of the principles of state policy, especially large-scale, long-term nature, should take account of a complex, dependent person’s position in its relationship with space and time. However, it is clear that many of the devastating social cataclysms can be avoided if put under professional control even the most radical forms of human impact on the basic categories.
© 1999 Ivan Mogilevkin