Recently, the role of spatial factors in the economic and political life has increased and has become more apparent than ever before. This is especially true for Russia. Paradoxically, at a time when the issues of space became the object of everyone’s attention and become very acute, Russia, the winner of the accumulated centuries of enormous spaces became to lose them. However, Russia still remains the country’s grand open spaces, and the conservation of its single national space is still topical. Fortunately, replacing the centrifugal, centripetal tendencies we have now arrived.
Among the issues involved and have applied and fundamental. There is a need to define the very meaning of space characterize the role of spatial factors, the impact on the economy and politics, to draw concrete conclusions.
The difficulty lies in the fact that in the economic and political practice of the concept of space is usually not separated, is not isolated from its material content – natural and man-made, man-made objects. Meanwhile, according to the scientific definition, an absolute space is defined as “empty receptacle of material objects.” Gradually, this situation is becoming increasingly important in practice.
The very practical human activity, especially in recent decades, helps to identify the difference between using the accepted terminology, “receptacle” and “content”. There is an empirical basis for theoretical studies. Thus, in particular, the space and its material contents are operated with varying degrees of intensity, depending on whether human activities are static or dynamic.
When it comes to the use of fixed natural objects, creating or subsequent operation, we are dealing with a static space utilization. Mining, farming, construction of industrial and residential buildings, work in the industry itself prozhi-
vanie people in cities or the countryside, and more will be primarily static activities in relation to space. They are directly related to the exploitation of the earth’s interior, its surface or other material content.
The situation is different when it comes to the use of space for movement in it. A good example is the launch and operation in space satellites and other man-made objects.However, the most common type of dynamic use of space is a transport activity – transportation of goods and passengers. In the most generalized form we can talk about the operation of the space for movement of material and information flows.
As science and technology has grown rapidly and diversified it is the dynamic use of space. This is more clearly revealed the importance of the space itself. It has become more difficult to interpret the space in an economic context as something imperceptible, invisible “application” to material objects, natural or artificial. Now you can individualize specific areas of space, characterized by their suitability for exploitation of their comparative value as a productive resource (space resource).Thus the possibility of operation (dynamic or static) concrete space as a resource will obviously depend primarily on its location, size and content.
Location (geography) – the most important quality characteristic of each of the particular space. The convenient location, facilitating intensive use of its human, increases the value of the space. Place concrete space serves as a qualitative characteristic. As an example one can refer to the fact that the portions at the border between land and sea, are generally more valuable than intra, since they are primarily of interest for dynamically (vehicle) use.
This explains the desire of any country (of course, has to do sufficient power) to move to the coast. Was no exception to the general rule, and Russia, carried out over the centuries of its history towards the sea. Intensive use of space (land and sea), all modes of transport along the coast of the former Soviet Baltic and Black seas can demonstrate the economic value of the region.
It is very important that the location of the space is a kind of intrinsic qualitative characteristic is also related to its material content. For example, the airspace over Siberia, especially in its northern part, has been used relatively little. Currently, there are negotiations on the tracks for air service between North America and South and Southeast Asia, passing through the airspace of Siberia. It is clear that such an interest has arisen in connection with the rapid economic development of Asian countries.
Here there is a kind of quality conversion rate – the value of material objects (ie industrial centers of North America and South Asia) – not only in the space where they are located, but also on the Siberian airspace. In practice, this is reflected in a sharp rise in demand from a number of industrial centers in the world for air travel in transit over Siberia.
“Transition” values is carried out in the opposite direction – from space to material objects. Take the most common example of the use of a static space. Two quite identical in size and quality of the land (for construction, agricultural or other use), but are different in specific spaces with different values will also have a different value, adequate space. Practically herein refers to the well-known differential rent I, more precisely, on the part that relates to the location of the land. It is significant that in differential rent I actually mixed two completely dissimilar rent: one relates to the spatial arrangement of land, and the other – to the fertility of its soil.
The above example is indicative not only as an illustration of the transition value of the space material objects contained in it (land in this case), but also as an explanation to the above – the current economic and political practice trends to consider both space and its material content as something together, inseparable even for scientific, theoretical analysis. On the basis of these traditional concepts, the high price of land, located in the city or near it, and the lowest – in the area located deep in the province, in both cases will be considered as intrinsic to the very property. There is a common mental inertia.
In light of the understandable neglect of space at its static use. Space tacitly considered as if non-existent. As human activity that is directly focused on material objects (material content space) – the processing of land, construction of buildings, the creation of a particular infrastructure, etc., it is clear, it would seem, the fact that the simultaneous operation of that particular space or even escape the attention or considered unimportant, insignificant for practical affairs.
If, however, at the same time still there were any spatial questions, they are not only associated with material objects, but also expressed more in terms of the past, when the very idea of space was of a one-dimensional or two-dimensional character (ie only used the concept of distance – length or area). As it was enough for practical purposes, and no major problems have been encountered.
A completely different situation was created in the rapid development of transport in the last decade. Technical progress has resulted, inter alia, to the fact that the means of transport have become relatively more autonomous, less dependent from the infrastructure. Marine vessels were able to stay longer at sea, to make flights over enormous distances, carry a lot of loading and unloading their own mechanisms, and most importantly, they have become much less dependent on the environment – the weather, the water element. as these changes are increasingly appears as a process of using the space of the Navy itself the process of exploitation.
Even clearer is the advancement in the transport process in the first place of the space, not only as the environment or conditions, and how operation of the facility took place with the development of air transport and aviation in general.Fundamental change made jet engines. With their appearance, it became clear that the movement of objects with a rocket thrust becomes, in principle, completely independent of the ambient air and that the objects move in the first place in the space itself.
Motion perception process is fundamentally changing. It became evident that, in principle moves in space as such ( “empty receptacle”) and only then – in an aqueous medium or air, and the like that the space is subject to direct operation of the motion.Space travel is a consolidated view of how a fully informed. At the same time made possible approach to space as a resource – space, which can be operated according to its properties dynamically or statically.
Of course, the changes of the last time are not in themselves gave rise to exploitation of space. They only found it made it much more prominent. However, in the past, in certain situations, the exploitation of space manifests itself in the economy and politics.
The fact that the space is, among other things, also resource that allows assigning a specific part (ie, a particular space) to retrieve the appropriate economic and other benefits. At the same time, of course, the fact that the use of namespaces was veiled, and to the fore all the same material content. Thus, in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, whose lands were located on the paths of movement of goods, merchants, pilgrims often collect fees for passage. “
Those lords or the Arab conquerors to understand that the Middle East region is valuable to its geographical location at the crossroads between East and West. Using already applied terminology, we can say that space is of high value (which it is, however, retained a large extent). For a long time, and other Arab rulers because of its control derive considerable financial benefit by charging essentially a tribute to the consumers of transported goods. This eventually prompted the European powers to seek new ways and the great geographical discoveries (Portuguese and Spanish expeditions, the discovery of America, etc.).
It is important to emphasize that it is not the search for land for agricultural use, not mastery of the seas for the development of fisheries and extraction of precious metals from seawater led entire nations to move in an era of great geographical discoveries, or even earlier with the Crusades. At all times, the main motive of these and many other historical events was the desire to master space itself. It was a high value of space or even space in general.
The space was the main, and sometimes even the sole purpose of the expeditions and conquests. The desire to acquire only the space spurred brutal “clean” territories of the indigenous population, its physical destruction, in whole or in partial exile, pushing off with the more valuable areas at a much less valuable, etc.
An important factor is the primary and secondary space it contains synthetic material objects. That’s the value of a certain specific space, its location makes it worthwhile building seaports, land of shopping centers, the creation of transport and other infrastructure, and not vice versa. So there were, for example, in Russia Lord Novgorod the Great, the Baltic ports (including St. Petersburg), Moscow, in the United States – New York, England – London, etc.
Moreover, the existing city gradually hireyut or even completely disappear from the map, when, due to various economic and political reasons, reduced the value of the portion of the space where they are. In such cases, one can speak about a change in economic and / or political coordinates over time, or about the impact of the time factor already.
If we consider the impact of temporary factors on the value of terrestrial space in general, it is evident that in this century is very fast “occupation” of terrestrial space man, his economic and every other development. Thus it mastered not only drying but also marine waters, air, ocean depth, etc. The rapid increase in population, the progress of science and technology have allowed to enter into economic and other turnover before almost deserted area of the North and other remote areas. Free spaces in the economic sense is becoming less politically same sense they essentially already almost there. Started the world’s oceans section – the best evidence.
This trend will continue into the next century, at least in his first decade as there are still major factors – rapid population growth and the development of technical means.However, human access to space flights to other planets perspectives give the impression that there was in principle the possibility of the expansion of space, settle in person. However, to talk seriously about that in the foreseeable future, a decrease in reserves of space can be compensated by new, outside of our planet, of course, too early.
The reduction of free space resources and, most importantly, the expectation of even greater reductions undoubtedly increase their overall value. The most valuable areas cause increased desire to master it. This entails a significant economic and political consequences. A careful analysis shows that the incipient process boundaries redrawing, and separatism disease, and the so-called national liberation movements are largely connected with the desire to possess a certain space, secure it for “their” state “their” party or group, “his” ethnic group . Of course, this happened almost throughout human history. However, now we are talking about a serious aggravation of the process caused by the intensifying shortage of space itself. Even more,
However, to the extent that both the spatial resources are exploited more intensively, and their free reserves decrease, the fact of possession can bring a growing income, depending on the quality of the organization of a particular space. Spatial resources in its economic, political and military importance can be attributed to the strategic, raising the question about their optimal use. We are talking about the direct use of the space itself and the types of operation in which the fore its material content.
Accordingly, more important than before, questions have acquired an optimal dynamic use of space (for example, a better organization of the movement of all modes of transport), more widely – movement in space in general (Maritime navigation and movement of aircraft). One problem – the optimal organization of the movement in general, not only in terms of security, but also operation of the space itself. It is, among other things, must be operated in such a way as to allow maximum movement (of people, goods, means of transport, etc.) with a minimum load of space and bring the most revenue. Actually, a new science – modern logistics – and is designed to solve many of the issues involved.
One of the most important aspects of the solutions to this problem, as shown by international practice is to create a modern infrastructure of roads, bridges, terminals equipped with the latest technology, etc. The role of the infrastructure, which allows to increase the intensity of exploitation of space, is very interesting in two respects.First of all, the fixed infrastructure, the functioning of which refers to the static use of space provides the ultimate dynamic is its use. She created, in fact, dynamic uses.
Thus, transport and other such infrastructure (e.g., launch sites), represents a visual link between the static and dynamic operation space. She seemed to be demonstrated that the difference between the two forms of exploitation rather external, formal, rather than principled. This again is a graphic illustration of the fact, as mentioned earlier in this article: both activities – dynamic and static – means the operation space.Just the first accomplishes this more clearly, and the second – somewhat disguised.
Another important point relates to another aspect of the issue – the role of dependence. At the same time it became clear the presence of a deep inner connection between the appearance as if the various phenomena of political life.
Young Asia, Africa and Latin America, having achieved political independence, soon discovered that the basic natural resources located on their territory, in fact in the hands of foreign monopolies. In the struggle for economic independence of the young state began to declare “resource sovereignty”, establishing national control over natural resources. Thus, power is already installed on the space (area), began to spread on the natural resources (material objects).
However, even an effective control over natural resources is not decided, and could not completely solve the problems of underdeveloped countries. Then the young states have gone further in their quest to increase revenue. At the same time they moved from two paths. The first led to the gradual spread of national sovereignty in the maritime area, which led to the creation of mainly “exclusive economic zones”.The second way is to extend the effective sovereignty over natural resources not only on crude production and at it as a commodity, but also at later stages, when the goods are offered for carriage by sea, thereby turning into a load.
Announcing the “sovereignty of the goods”, the young state is actually established control over the transport process, that is, over the dynamic use of space. Thus, the ways in which developing countries are trying to increase their revenues in the field of ocean affairs, actually mean: the first – the assignment of maritime areas, the second – control over the use of the dynamic is still free maritime spaces. So made the World Ocean section. Reserves still remaining free spaces are declining rapidly, increasing the expectation of tight spaces, mentioned above.
However, the example of the changes in the oceans (as, of course, on land and in other areas) that the eternal desire of States to the expansion of “their” space is constrained by several factors. If summarized these circumstances, they are as limitations of the specific capacity of the state to the spatial expansion and opposition from other countries. In addition, it should be borne in mind the constant change of the whole international situation as a whole, the rapid by historical standards, the development of the situation in the world under the influence of a complex set of factors, and the current long-term nature.
Therefore, attempts are made in the spatial expansion of an international “environment”, which is constantly changing, seriously hampers the spatial policy of the states. In particular, some countries are often in the “opposite position” and its foreign policy doctrine, which they had just guided, suddenly become unacceptable.So, at the III UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, which lasted 10 years (from 1972 to 1982), the Soviet delegation defended the interests of the great maritime powers.epochal change took place a few years later, which in many ways changed the situation, and, consequently, the interests of Russia. Meanwhile, an important international document has already been signed. The new Russian state, on the one hand, being the legal successor of the Soviet Union,
Ballooning is different from the two considered types of dynamic operating space.Ballooning even more direct approaches, “clean” use of space as such. Of course, the content of the material can not be ignored, but nevertheless the state policy in this sphere does not focus on the air assignment, and approval rights of the state is to regulate the use of space as such.
A number of countries announced their claims to sovereignty over the airspace (a very considerable height), some were ready to even turn up here and space. In their aspirations of these countries were guided by two main considerations – security and economic. The latter consists in the fact that for flying over the territory of the country to charge a fee, which many have called “pay-per-sky.” These payments are more than the payment of transit traffic on the ground, close to the “clean” card for the use of space. Of course, from the payment for the flight over the territory of the country, whose sovereignty extends to the airspace, we must subtract the cost of organizing and air traffic control, including the cost of air navigation equipment, payment for the work of air traffic controllers, etc.
Despite the apparent desire of many countries to extend its sovereignty over the air prostranggaul / VNL & Hx to .kosmosa, the process of assigning limited airspace capacity as a sovereign country, themselves effectively control this space, and the conflicting interests of surrounding states. In this area, to reach a reasonable balance of interests, and the state, leading space research (including Russia), avoid the dangers associated with the payment of large sums for flying multiple satellites over-sovereign country.
However, the restrictions imposed for the purpose of somehow streamline the operation of the space, only emphasize walking and internationally and in subnational term process aimed at more intensive use of space, for profit from the fact of ownership (ie extraction of rent) and the growing role the state in this process.
One of the interesting developments of recent years was held in 1994, the US government first auction for the sale of licenses for interactive television services, and in fact – of latitude for wireless communication purposes. In this case, “radioprostranstvo heaven,” as he dubbed Americans interpreted in the US as a “natural resource of the nation”, with which one can quite agree. In general, the US government expected to get through a series of auctions to sell the right to use their national space for wireless communication of about 10 bln. Dollars.
State’s interest in establishing its control over the space is, of course, not only and not so much a commercial as general economic and even political-military nature. The most obvious example of this is continued up to the time of the struggle between the two superpowers – the USSR and the United States for leadership in space. Attempts to explain this competition in space, only the motives of prestige can not withstand serious scrutiny. However, given a number of more fundamental reasons, for example, is that competition in space allows to fulfill the most advanced technologies and stimulates the progress of scientific thought, etc.
But the main thing is different. Acting in outer space, each of the superpowers sought, ahead of rivals in technology, to establish a de facto control over the largest space, including on the critical areas of our planet. Country win this race, it is less vulnerable than its rival, in every respect, and above all in the military.
The fight, which was conducted during the second half of the XX century and is politically divided the world into two camps (except for the “gray zone”, that is, countries seeking to adhere to the neutral line), was primarily a struggle for space. In economic terms, it was a struggle for the most important strategic resource – space. In the military-political terms it was a struggle for the opportunity to maneuver their forces as widely and freely.
The two leaders – the United States and the Soviet Union – sought to ensure to maximize the scattering of his forces (not only in the military sense of the word) in the space, while preserving the necessary level of control. In other words, each side sought mobile dispersion. Particular importance was attached to the naval forces.Mobility and the ability to use them to move in the oceans, occupies the main surface of the planet, gives them a major role in the fight for space on Earth.
It is in this context should be taken so-called “Gorshkov doctrine” developed by a group of highly skilled Soviet naval officers and providing for an active role of the Soviet Navy. However, it is clear that the Navy with all its autonomy of action can not do without land-based systems quite dispersed in different basins.
Therefore, even only the interests of the Navy (as well as space vehicles) required extensive database systems, stations and other facilities in different parts of the world.In practice this meant that each of the parties vying for control of space, could not do without a significant number of allied countries, oriented toward superpower leader.However, superpower rivalry was not confined to space and the oceans (as it was not confined to the military field); it is known, was much wider.
The rivalry between the US and the Soviet Union in the economy, as in other areas, could not ignore the spatial factor. In the conditions of the last decades, the outcome of the fight is largely dependent on how this can disperse their side (or allied) economic potential in space, while retaining its capacity, efficiency and manageability.This, of course, a very difficult task. In a difficult and costly struggle for space, each of the two systems used its advantages: one – socialist – the possibility of more centralized, rigid vertical clerk type of control, which gave the best results in the military sphere; the other – the capitalist – with a more flexible and numerous horizontal links have been successful in the economic sphere. As a result, none of the parties won a landslide victory in the struggle for dominance in space. Then began the self-destruction of the USSR.
In the post-Soviet period the West, primarily the United States, trying to continue the spatial expansion. This movement aimed at increasing control, provides NATO membership of the former members of the Warsaw Pact – the Eastern European countries, as well as a number of other simultaneous or successive promotions.
Для новой России возникла трудная геополитическая ситуация. Ожидание некоторых отечественных политиков, что ценой сдачи своих позиций Западу Россия “купит” себе спокойный период для внутреннего обустройства, не оправдалось. Нажим на Россию с целью вытеснения ее из все новых пространств продолжается. В отличие от былого это давление осуществляется не только извне, но зачастую и изнутри. Так, совсем недавно крупная российская газета либерального толка высказалась в том духе, что наступил конец “знаменитой филькиной грамоты от 15 апреля 1926 года”. В этой цитате речь шла о постановлении Президиума Центрального исполнительного комитета СССР от 15 апреля 1926 г. “Об объявлении территорией Союза ССР земель и островов, расположенных в Северном Ледовитом океане”.
What caused such an insulting statement about the legal act? As is known, Russia has recognized itself the legal successor of the USSR, and therefore continue to apply those legal instruments that have been adopted in previous years and have not canceled the currently existing Russian authorities. The key to attacking the said decision is quite simple. It yavletsya one of the legal sources of the political-legal regime, which historically for a long time formed in the Arctic and is based on the sectoral principle. Russian Arctic sector belongs to the vertex at the north pole located between the meridians 32 ° 04’35 // E and 168 ° 49’30 “W
Arctic sector represents for Russia’s largest reserve of space, out of which 6.8 million sq. Km falls on the oceans and seas. Thus, the external and internal (including even some people from the apparatus of the State Duma) attacks on the status of the Russian Arctic sector aim to gradually destroy the power of Russia over this reserve space. Particular attention to the region is not accidental, it is caused by a common spatial situation in which Russia finds itself after the Soviet collapse.
The current geopolitical situation in Russia is characterized by loss of land and water areas, the loss of influence on many foreign spaces and start weakening the sovereignty of any strankg * sdggalyanrizhet teltpitoriyah and waters. After the destruction of the USSR territory of the country as a whole fell by about 1/4. In this case, the European part of Russia has become almost intercontinental, semi-isolated area. Russia was deprived of the coastal zones in the Baltic and Black Seas, and others. This has caused great damage to Russia’s ability to dynamically use the space as a whole, including remaining under Russian sovereignty.
Negative changes, in particular, reflected in the fact that Russia’s access to the Baltic and Black Seas is minimized; on the western and southern perimeter of its land borders Russia pushed from Europe and Central Asia. In this case, the end portions of the single ( “Soviet”) ground communications systems remained on the territory of the newly independent states. As a result, transport, and hence the economic relations of European Russia to the outside world (Western Europe, North and South America, the Middle East, Africa) depend on transit through the territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other countries .
Transit countries (in the marine and terrestrial areas), setting mode passes and Russian transportation of goods and passengers through its territory, thereby regulate the entire freight and passenger traffic along its entire length, including the territory of Russia. Transit countries actually have the ability to affect the functioning of the main Russian transport highways connecting Russia with the outside world. In other words, economic conditions (more widely – living conditions) in the space of European Russia are dependent on transit countries and their policies. Transit countries are like-dominant countries in relation to Russia.
It is known that the dominance of transport makes it possible to dominate the space over the space. Country-dominant to the extent that it affects traffic flows inland neighbor (Russia), exerts its influence within the relevant Russian space. In fact, Russia is no longer completely free to operate their own space. The degree of dependence of the Russian-dominant neighbors can be illustrated by many examples.Thus, a major Russian gas pipeline to the West pass through the territory of Ukraine.Russia found itself in a position where it is not free to solve many problems of their economic (and political) relations with Ukraine, without this important fact.
In this situation, as in many others, it revealed the weakness of the position of “intra-continental” Russia in its relations with Ukraine, whose territory separates us from the Black Sea and from the entire south-western land areas (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia and others.). The following applies objective law – a manifestation of the advantages of transit space by virtue of its position in relation to intra-rikontinentalnomu (closed) space. Important is the objective nature of the “inequitable” situation, its disadvantages for landlocked countries.
Russian port on the Baltic Sea – Kaliningrad is separated from the main Russian Lithuanian territory. The length of the routes leading to Kaliningrad is small.Nevertheless, the very fact of transit for Russian periodically creates difficulties and misunderstandings in the very sphere of transport links and offers opportunities to present her political demands. Similar examples are not only other countries, but even for transit areas, which is part of Russia. Regularity, acting at the same time, all the same, and its consequences are similar. Thus, the events in Chechnya, brought down not only the passing of the road there, but at the same time and the entire North Caucasus Railway in general. As a result, virtually stopped all freight and passenger traffic between Russia and Transcaucasia.
In political and legal terms, a transit country (or territory) as it assumes the possibility of economic and political influence on the internal situation in the confined space of Russia. This effect leads to a decrease in the actual power (sustrany In this case -. To a reduction in the sovereign rights of Russia.
This situation provides a good explanation for the fact, as mentioned earlier in this article, – the general and constant pursuit of any country (of course, with the necessary capabilities) to master as independent space. Essentially, this shows the desire of the nation to be master of his own destiny, full sovereign within its borders.With this philosophy spatial situation in which Russia finds itself, it is extremely unfavorable, leading to erosion of its sovereignty in many areas. In turn, the weakening of sovereignty leads to the disintegration of the space. There are centrifugal tendencies. Many areas of Russia, depending on the neighboring countries in the transport and communications regarding, involved in the process of “creeping” of separatism.
Very complex spatial situation in which Russia finds itself puts it in front of the two principal historical resolutions:
- reintegration of the former Soviet Union to seek to ensure that, in particular, were returned to the key areas of space;
- start a historic reorientation of its main economic, political and other ties with the West to the East. The concern is to bring economic and cultural (in the broadest sense) potential of Russia from the Atlantic area and connect it to the Pacific region. The need for such a reorientation practically recognized. In April 1996, a government development program was unveiled Far East and Trans-Baikal for the next 10 years, providing huge investment totaling 370 trillion. rub.
The above two options (reintegration and reorientation) ns contradict each other and can be performed in a coordinated. Under either option (or a combination thereof) can not ignore the fact that while Russia after the Soviet section has retained its basic historical space, in reality, truly independent space has decreased significantly and continues to decrease. At a time when the European center of Russia, together with the capital turned out to be close to the new state borders, the question of the adequacy of the allowance of an independent spaces of vital importance.
Meanwhile, this independent space is real. The Russian North is a large region with its own autonomous nature of the transport infrastructure, independent of the influence of foreign powers. On the mainland, the North includes extensive margin of Eurasia – from the Norwegian border to the middle of the Bering Strait in the north – the Arctic sector.
With a very harsh climate, the region has a number of advantages, which can make it a role in the fate of Russia decisive. The general location of the region gives it exits to the west – the Atlantic and to the east – to the Pacific Ocean, which is extremely important, considering the semi-isolated spatial position of a considerable part of Russian territory.
At the same time, and the internal organization of space in the region has been prepared successfully by nature. Communications infrastructure includes the Northern Sea Route, which forms a natural transport route in the latitudinal direction. Ramified network of rivers flowing from south to north, with its tributaries is the meridional complement this natural communication system. By the Northern Sea Route in the transport relation gravitate major economic regions of Russia with a total area of 9,000,000 sq. Km and a population of 50 million. Man. Enormous natural wealth of the North are well known.
Thus, Russia has a great potential of the independent space, a number of good features which allow you to use it in the current difficult situation. This goal is difficult, however, the serious circumstances of political, economic SCHE olOTH ^ ^ iecjcorosvrystsch
Of the spaces of the Russian North has to a large area in the ocean. In the Arctic sector historically formed political and legal regime based on the sectoral principle, that is, on its Russian facilities. In light of this, it becomes easier to understand the attacks on the sectoral principle and Russian rights in the sector. Particularly alarming that the attacks come at a time when the world’s oceans in marine basins of interest for Russia to take actions that are aimed at changing the existing status. Corresponding changes occur in the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea. Despite protests from Russia, to prevent it is not yet possible.
In connection with the above, the repeated visits by US submarines in Russian northern shores may well be interpreted as the US intention to gradually, without prior arrangement undermine the regime of the Russian sector. Russia has no choice but to stand firm and once again legislation to back up their rights to the Arctic sector.
This is all the more important that, now and in the future, Russia will experience increasing pressure from three directions – west, south and east. North can be seen as a huge rear area for the whole of Russia, and especially to the Far East. Accordingly, there is a need for its spatial organization, including communications, and his “separation”. Of course, this task is a colossal scale in the spatial and in the temporal sense. However, its implementation will allow Russia to withdraw from the onslaught of the mainland, making it independent in the communication and, more broadly – in the spatial sense.
As a result, Russia will restore the ability to solve serious problems around the perimeter of the historical space of purely political and economic means. Neighboring countries (and therefore the powers behind them) will be unable to exert strong pressure on Russia. At the same time the country will be free space to maneuver.