The note real human resource capacity of the country compared with the vital problems that are associated with the process of globalization. On the basis of practical experience analyzed the current situation and sets out specific findings
Introduction …………………………………………. ………………………………………….. …………………………… four
- The personnel problem, its causes ……………………………………… ………………………… 6
- Especially the human resource crisis in Russia ……………………………………… ……………… 13
- The nature and extent of problems at the present stage of globalization …………………………………… ………………………………………….. ………………………… 17
- Monopolization movement processes in the global economy ………………………. 23
- V communication problems of cities in the era of globalization ………………………… 26
Analysis of the global economy as a complex system of movement (goods, information, capital, energy), move the masses of people, it shows that those countries that have successfully integrated into the system, improve the prospects of their further development. The United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China moved to the first position.
In these circumstances, Russia should develop and implement an adequate course of public policy, which is associated with considerable difficulties. The main constraint to Russia (though not only for our country) is an acute shortage of skilled, disciplined, morally stable frame.
Because, as you know, “politics – the art of the possible”, it is advisable to consider how much the country’s ability to conduct the necessary economic and social decision-making limited staff problems. It should be borne in mind that the problem of “human factor” is a worldwide, although in Russia it has its own characteristics and has now taken on the extreme edge.
The urgency of the issue of low qualification (in combination with other negative factors) is evident at all levels of public life. Regrettable in this illustration, 2013, is the story of the draft law on “reforming” (actually the same on liquidation) of the Academy of Sciences.
In many areas of the economy and social life of the low level of professionalism, lack of knowledge and practical experience, decrease the overall culture leads to extremely negative, and often tragic consequences. An example is the transport. Transport by their nature are extremely sensitive to the quality of employment in this industry people. According to the latest data 50% aviavary occurs for reasons directly related to the “human factor”, in Russia this figure is significantly higher in the world, it reaches us 80%.
According to experts, in this case, the transition from the so-called “classical” air to the “computer” to set new personnel challenges, including the psychological.The results, that is, accidents ( including during the “Superjet” a demonstration flight in Indonesia) show that the situation precarious.
This trouble has occurred in other transportation industries and other industrial sectors. Every year in Russia in road accidents on the roads are killed 30-35 thousand. Man and several times more maimed.
the situation seems better in some countries, but it is not only in fact far from ideal, but upon closer inspection, just distinguished by its specificity. For example, in the United States is very uncommon accident, and even larger disasters in industry and transport, associated with the production or transportation of dangerous goods.In this case, not without casualties. As a rule, the reason is the “human factor”.
Even the largest TNCs can not guarantee the required level of security. An example would be a major accident in the Gulf of Mexico BP oil field in April 2010. In December 2012 the settlement agreement approved by a federal court in New Orleans, BP confirmed the payment of damages for a total amount of 7.8 bln. Dollars.
When considering the causes of the accident was a huge set (the final report) that the engineer BP Heyfl decided not to carry out the analysis, which determines the quality of cementing and refused to investigate the anomalies detected as a result of another important analysis.
In general, large-scale man-made disasters are almost always demonstrate quite clearly widespread, the international character of the low professionalism, lack of training and responsibility, etc.
Delving into the reasons for this negative phenomenon, which has become customary, daily confronted, among other prerequisites, and those that are of a historical character. Training of specialists, the wider “cultural layer” (intellectuals – if we talk specifically about the Russian) is very long and complicated process. In our country, it took no less than 1.5 centuries. A favorable outcome is possible under certain conditions: economic, social, etc. It is clear that armed conflict, social unrest and other reasons, resulting in death, deprivation of people’s ability to work as part of their profession, a negative impact on the situation with frames. Of particular importance is the problem of the transfer of knowledge, practical experience from the older generation of young. The issue of intergenerational communication is extremely important and particularly narrow-professional scale and more widespread in the general cultural sense. These topical issues are discussed in the following sections of this note in order to find out how the “human factor” affects the implementation of public policies to address the challenges before the Russian economic and social problems.
- The personnel problem, its causes
Sharp “reset” in the level of professionalism and Russia is well-known and widely recognized. This phenomenon has to face on a daily basis almost every Russian.
Sick people in need of medical care in vain complain about the inadequate skills of doctors and poor organization of work in clinics and hospitals. Domestic media have long been open about the collapse of the public health.
Parents of pupils and independent experts say that the level of knowledge, graduating from school, shockingly low. Themselves like modern schools were the subject of scandalous revelations in television broadcasts on national television, not to mention the documentary footage posted on the Internet.
Not best way we have a situation in higher education. In Germany and France on the “public sector” 80-90% of the seats, we have about 40%. The negative result was not slow to appear.
In recent decades, due to lack of funding emerged a large number of paid educational institutions: institutions, colleges, universities, and even the “academies”.Many of them are produced in light of very weak professionals, and often it simply ignorant. This is explained by the fact that teaching staffs are extremely weak in these educational institutions, as well as the fact that a paid commercial training system in modern conditions of Russia has become, in fact, the purchase of money diplomas.
It is clear that as a result of the national economy, all levels of government, social services have already come in for at least two decades, people in professional and general cultural respect unprepared to work. The consequence become as large “resonant” failure, and chronic lack of necessary, adequate staff.
Among the high-profile accident failures in space launches, as well as in the defense field in a test missile “Bulava” and others.
Disappointing is the position at the level of blue-collar occupations. Some experts believe that a shortage of skilled labor is now – the main problem that inhibits the growth of the industry. The structure of the labor force indicates an excessive proportion of those engaged in manual labor. The decline in industrial production by about half in the 1990s, deindustrialization led to the fact that businesses have stopped training workers. Meanwhile, the industry in the 1970-1980-ies prepared itself for basic (60%) of working personnel. The remaining 40% of young workers were studies in vocational system (PTU).
State in the country with skilled personnel has been recently (in June 2013) illustrated the results of the international competition «WorldSkills- 2013″. The event was attended by representatives of the team working professionals from 47 countries.The competition was held in Leipzig in 40 categories (masonry, Vehicle bodies and paint work, searching for defects in systems conditioning work cooks and hairdressers, etc., etc.). The Russian team of 47 the opportunity to take 44th place.
The main reasons for the unsatisfactory situation with the staff of both workers and other professions (engineering, medical, teaching, etc.) began to negative changes in the country’s economy – industry, agriculture, transport, science.Experienced, knowledgeable employees were forced to change their occupation and lose their skills. Many even have emigrated from the country, others went to the “shadow”.
According to unofficial data, only 1200 fully functioning modern enterprises remained in Russia. They are mainly related to the defense industry.
Continuing past decade de-industrialization proved to be almost everywhere.For example, the automotive industry, to the to the Torah have always been treated very carefully and for which created an extremely favorable conditions, eventually moved to the assembly of cars from imported components with an annual production – 0.5 million units.. Once the pride of Soviet aviation industry can not meet the demand of the domestic civil aviation aircraft quality: up to 80% of the aircraft operating on the civil lines in the country – foreign production. In the context of the decline of lost frames, which, even when you try to restore such important industry to bring back to work would be impossible.
Difficult situation, followed by a loss of workers and technical staff takes place and, in some commodity industries.
The forest resources of our country reigns a century of stagnation. Russia ranked first in the world reserves of wood (over 20%), including securities, softwood (50%). However, the export of timber products Russia lags far behind other major exporters. Our exports to 70% from the raw logs and lumber initial process stages.This is the result of the low level of the industry associated with the lack or even absence of, first of all, specialists, qualified personnel. More successful in this regard, countries, including China, not to mention Canada, the USA, Finland, in their main export products takes place a high degree of processing: high-quality lumber, pulp, paper, cardboard, furniture. Russia, on the contrary imports paper, cardboard, furniture and other finished products. Very often (and now), this situation is due to the lack of equipment, lack of investments, etc. etc. These arguments can not be accepted. In my personal experience (practical work in the Foreign Trade), the reason is the lack of managerial, organizational work in the industry and the lack of adequate staff qualifications at all levels, from working professionals to middle managers. In my memory, since 1940 (!) Years vneshtor- tractive association and the Ministry of Foreign Trade are negotiating with the countries of the urgent need “upgrading” (in the terminology of the time) timber exports. Most of the energy comes from such leaders V / O “Ex- portles” as Vlas Nichkov, Matthew Kostolevsky Alexander Frumkin and many others. Certain results have been, Did not happen. Already much later, at the turn of the USSR it was purchased in Finland, new machines for processing wood in places it blank. However, they came very quickly into disrepair due to improper handling.
What costs the country unskilled labor in this industry? Loss of 10 bln. Dollars, now. More advanced calculations show that an increase in efficiency in this sector of our economy (now Russia is lagging behind on this indicator 11 times) export revenues could reach $ 200 billion. Dollars annually.
For the same specific reasons: nowhere unsuitable, unprofessional leadership of the “top” and ignorant, negligent operation of ordinary workers in agriculture is due to the plight of the village.
It is clear that “the collective-farm path,” the development of agriculture in the Soviet period to the beginning of the 1990s has exhausted itself. However, instead of reforms after the collapse of the USSR’s economic and social system has been eliminated, gradually developed over the years.
On the first decade since the beginning of economic reforms more than a third of agricultural land have been abandoned in the country (1.7 million. Ha). According to the official census of 2010 has since 2002 had completely disappeared 2.2 thousand. Villages. Moreover, formally still existing 6.5 thousand. Settlements, actually quite depopulated, they do not live a single person. At the same time destroyed the social structure of the village: closed 13 thousand schools in the plight of rural medicine, lacks 21 thousand doctors… In this situation, the population continues to leave the village. However, despite the depopulation of rural areas, the unemployment rate among able-bodied reaches 32.4%. People exist due to pensions, private gardens, a random temporary earnings.
Especially unfavorable situation (and negative in its consequences for the economy and the whole life of the country as a whole) has developed in the field of communications – transport, mail and other forms of communication, etc. Although it has become recognized the key role of the communications factor in economic development, social progress, on the whole, the situation in this sphere seriously deteriorated after the liquidation of the Soviet Union. Reforms in the field of transport were extremely incompetently conceived and implemented by unprofessional.
First of all, it is necessary to consider that in 1950-1980-ies. manual transport consisted usually of competent, knowledgeable, experienced people. system of selection and promotion of staff was generally competent and efficient. There are many examples of outstanding organizers and excellent professionals. These were the Minister of the Navy VG Bakaev, Guzhenko TB, other major leaders – Stepan Mikhailovich Baev, Dmitry Zotov, K. et al.
Real source of specialists of railway transport in the Soviet period it was the Ministry of Railways.
Despite the key role of transport in economic and social development, radical reforms in this area have been carried out with the utmost foolishness. All this was accompanied by a great cost – the loss of experienced personnel (including those in the upper echelons of administration and middle management in the field). Now, when it has been more than two decades, it is possible to evaluate the overall skill level of those who carried out the conversion of those who now heads the transportation industry.
On the main inland transport Russia – the total length of railway tracks has not changed. It is about 85 thousand. Km. This industry is subjected to sharp criticism from not only the media, but also of experienced railroad. So, they called JSC “Russian Railways” (created after the liquidation of the IPU – the Ministry of Railways) – artificially formed a monopoly, which operates at a loss, even though the “official income of its 25 bosses in 2011 amounted to 1.4 billion rubles..”, Is the result of allegedly, that the “rails to allow only” friends “. Reform of road transport in the Soviet period was carried out unsuccessfully, not to mention other negative consequences that are the responsibility of the law enforcement agencies.
Quite clearly worsened the situation in the inland waterway transport.Powerful, branched waterway system requires reconstruction work. Neglect of infrastructure, shoaling in recent decades accompanied by a reduction in freight and passenger traffic several times. On riverboats in Russia now carry 10-15 million. Pers., Ie less than 1% per year of all passenger traffic in the country. In Soviet times, transporting 100 million. Pers. Total cargo inland waterways were delivered to 560 million tonnes today -…. 130 million tons Disruption in water transport operation deprived many thousands of experienced professionals and restore their contingent will be very difficult.
Development of road transport in the country in the post-Soviet period can be seen as a paradox in many ways. For example, as an illustration of the exceptional lack of professionalism of many employees, from managers to ordinary road workers.
In carrying out economic reforms and a simultaneous demolition of the old Soviet transport management system, instead of several departments, each of which is engaged in “their” mode of transport: sea, rail, road, and so on, was created one, one Ministry of Transport. The main leadership role in this new ministry came to play … “motorists”, that is, those who used to work in this industry. From the few survivors of professional staff on marine and rail transport have heard complaints about the complete lack of understanding on the part of senior officials of the new Ministry of the business issues that go beyond the boundaries of road transport.
Of course it was obviously a negative decision in relation to any “non-road” transport industry, but it gives us hope that everything will competently and successfully in the field of transport. However, nothing of the sort happened. In the field of road transport and road economy of the country is facing an extremely unsatisfactory situation prevailing among other things because of the incompetence of workers in the industry.
Of course, for an objective assessment must be borne in mind that during the Soviet era, this transport sector has been the “bottleneck” in the national economy and in the social sphere. Therefore, before the Reformers stood in the 90 years is no easy task. But they are up to the task is clearly not right, and incompetence was one of the main reasons.
Official statistics show that in 2013 in Russia there are 780 thousand. Km.paved roads, which is somewhat higher than in 2000 (753 thous. km.) and in 1995 (743 thous. km.). However, we must remember that at the present time (2013) 5.4 million. Of cargo and 34.4 million. Cars registered in Russia.
Even purely quantitative ratio of length of roads and the availability of vehicles shows that the situation is unfavorable. For the period after 1990, the number of vehicles (including the more transit) increased several times, while the road network has grown much more slowly. Things were even worse with quality problems. State of many roads is very poor, increase the intensity of traffic during bad roads and poor driving culture lead to a permanent and a large “traffic jams”, even on the main roads of the country. Construction of roads in our country costs 8-10 times more expensive than in the advanced foreign countries.
These examples can be continued on the material of any of the branches of our national economy.
It is not the best position in the social sphere.
The situation in the national health care system is characterized by many as a “collapse”. In the month of August 2013 (the 12th), media reported, based on the minister – Skvortsova VI, that the shortage of doctors in Russia reaches 40 thousand people.. Even earlier, Skvortsova VI anxiously admitted that the level of training of doctors have “terrifying.” In addition, it should be added that before Skvortsova having a medical education, health care led Golikova TA and MY Zurabov, professional people far from medicine. As for the organizational skills, the results of their stay in the ministerial positions speak for themselves. Only after years of open struggle of the medical community, including prominent physicians such as L.M.Roshal, we managed to achieve that this vital post that affects the health of many people,
One reason for the impasse in which the Russian economy (and not only it), is a human resources policy, which takes place from the beginning of the 1990s.
Failure to use a knowledgeable, experienced, competent economists obvious.Significant contingent (35 thousand. Pers.) Foreign Trade professionals who are familiar with market practice, competence in financial, market and commercial matters was “excommunicated” from all professional activity as a result of the reforms. Opportunistic Institute (VNIKI), which worked great specialists in all major areas of the world mar ka economy and foreign countries subjected to such “transformations” that the once internationally recognized research center, has practically ceased to exist.
Meanwhile, these frames: Foreign Trade, NICI, and other first-class public institutions were to form the basis and the new control system and the largest modern corporations. That did not happen and the negative effects are not immediate.
As important as the manifestations of the human resources problem as a serious limiting opportunities now it is for our country, it is necessary for a better understanding of the issue consider its nearest predis- thorium in view of what was happening not only here, but abroad as our homeland.
- Especially the human resource crisis
A heavy blow to the intelligentsia as a whole, including on the situation of specialists in our country has suffered the collapse of the Soviet state system at the turn of the 80s-90s and the subsequent events.
Experts virtually all professions, economists, lawyers, engineers, scientists working in the ministries and departments, state-owned enterprises, scientific research institutes. The doctors worked in public health centers and public health officials, teachers in public schools.
The transition to a new political system led to the liquidation of the old apparatus of power, that is, the mass dismissal of experts from the Council of Ministers of the supreme bodies of management, the State Planning Commission, the State Committee on prices and other institutions of power as such. There was a spontaneous change of personnel at all levels and the majority of specialties in the country, which is entered into (already difficult) period of transition to a market economy. Followed by a number of clearly incompetent decisions.
Elimination of, for example, agencies involved in foreign
ties, accompanied by rupture of the existing cooperation relations
with many countries (eg Eastern Europe, etc.) that bazirova were on mutual deliveries. Russia felt the shortage of food and other goods of mass demand, and the domestic industry lost orders. Integration ties began to crumble, not only in foreign trade, but also in relation to yesterday’s Soviet republics. Followed by economic and social devastation of the 1990s.
The events of late last century, which caused damage to all sides of life of the country, including humanitarian, leading to the emigration of many educated people, “the care of the profession”, deprofessionalization, still alive in the memory of modern generations. However, one can not disregard the “legacy” of the previous period of the XX century, when the Russian (Soviet Union) is almost always carried a huge personnel losses. These losses were accumulated without doubt, to bring down their negative effects on the modern Russia.
Even in the summary list of negative shocks not only impressive, but also explains many things: the First World War, revolution and civil war led to a huge loss of life. Just emigrated from the country to 3 million. Pers. They were mostly educated people, including large Engineers (Sikorski II, Zworykin, VK et al.), Economists (Leontiev), specialists in various fields. Tugan-Baranowski died MI – Well-known economist of the time.
Soviet power, destroying the caste or other barriers that led to the active participation in work and to learn a lot of new people, new staff, among whom were capable, energetic, proven themselves in the future in different fields.
At the same time, the “power of the workers and peasants” (as she herself certified) in every possible way slighted those experts (and more generally all members of the intelligentsia), who both managed to survive the hard times of the Civil War. Even those “experts” who went to serve the new government openly declared “fellow travelers” and were under constant suspicion. Too many have been deprived of the opportunity to work on a specialty, while the country was experiencing a shortage of qualified personnel. Period 1920 hgodov – this time of mass education, the training of new professionals and the “liberation” of experienced older staff.
Since the beginning of the 1930’s, “the focus of the struggle” with “bourgeois” specialists was postponed to yesterday’s revolutionaries, supporters of the party.
The tragic repression of the 1930s had a purely human and negative consequences. The country lost many capable managers, organizers, employees of the national economy, etc.
Later, during the Second World War, the Soviet Union lost millions of people, including the valuable specialists. They died and lost their health, fighting in the ranks of the army, militia or destroyed the enemy, was not on his own in the occupied territory.
In the postwar period, severe staffing situation has been compounded by renewed “campaigns” against “veysmanistov-Morganists”, “pseudo-scientists” (cybernetics “), etc. This is becoming quite apparent direction against scientists, skilled workers, more widely -. Against the intelligentsia.
It seemed the Soviet government itself has consistently pursued a policy to ensure that in every possible way to weaken its human resource capacity.
After 1953 the personnel policy was softened, but not enough to significantly improve the situation in general.
The attitude to the use of experts from EU countries in Eastern Europe.Through Foreign Trade, SEV’a and other organizations from time to time in front of the country’s leadership raised the question of removing, or at least ease restrictions on the movement of people between the socialist countries. All our appeals over freedom of transboundary movements rejected. Even our request for free entry specialists from Czechoslovakia and East Germany in connection with projects of stations of maintenance organizations in these countries on the territory of the USSR were rejected. Only much later, closer to the collapse of the socialist system began to let (very timid and limited) workers and engineers from Bulgaria and other countries in the logging and some other “industries”, where people were harvesting and other work for export to countries to send their travelers.
In general, it should be noted that the Soviet leadership, and prior to 1953 and after a very timid attitude to any ideas of integration, even with close allies or satellites. So, we were categorically rejected our proposals, “alter” the railroad tracks, at least in 2 directions on the west (Poland and Czechoslovakia) on the broad, Soviet gauge of 1520 mm. in order to alleviate the serious transportation on the main, west.As a result of continued colossal work transshipment in Brest on the Polish border in Chop on the border of Czechoslovakia and Hungary. In the future, this work was somewhat facilitated the transition to the rolling stock permutation using more modern equipment.
Indecisiveness of Stalin’s leadership and following due to the fact that they are primarily concerned with their own interests, ie to maintain power in the hands of its ruling groups: Stalin, Khrushchev, etc. Therefore, any suggestions, any ideas about any changes they considered not from the standpoint of the interests of the whole country, the population, and from the standpoint of the interests of the ruling team.Meanwhile, any significant changes that move the economy, social sphere meant that the possibility of political change threat, and therefore a new balance of power, the emergence of competitors, rivals. Calm it was not to change anything, keep still.
However, the rejection of the development of economy and social sphere (especially denial for a long time) is very dangerous and leads to self-destruction of the system, not to mention the vulnerability to external threats. This actually happened with the Soviet Union.
Meanwhile, as in the Soviet Union continued essentially a struggle with their own qualified personnel (no longer with the “bourgeois” in the 1920s.), And with one hundred percent “proletarian”, its, Soviet environment in the world as a whole is changing rapidly.
In Europe, most of the cultural part of the world there have been military upheavals of two world wars, a tremendous crisis of the early 1930s, mass repression against the civilian population, including the genocide against whole peoples. Half a century of European countries exist in a humanitarian catastrophe.
This humanitarian catastrophe caused by the death of tens of millions of people, bearers of knowledge, cultural values, has led to spiritual impoverishment, destruction of civilization base.
The general cultural level, the potential for spiritual development has decreased markedly and, by all accounts, irrevocably. Europe has quickly lose its position of the center of “white civilization”.
Depleted, lost landmarks Europeans shots were not only unable to lead (in the broad sense) overseas nations, but also quickly degraded at home, in their own countries.
Swept across the European continent, “the May revolution of 1968” was perceived by many as a social revolt of youth, which would lead to progressive change.However, in reality, as subsequent events showed, this was part of the cultural degradation. Europe is rapidly losing the lead. Political change combined with the weakening of economic. Vacuum personnel required massive importation of labor in Europe poured millions of immigrants from the former French Algeria and various countries in Africa and Asia, including those who have never been French colonies.
Britain’s overseas possessions as independence built up “delivery” of immigrants in the former mother country. Germany “imported” more than 3 million. Turks. Even the Scandinavian countries not only of economic, but even out of ideological considerations began to take significant numbers of migrants from distant southern countries.
The newcomers settled in the capitals and major cities, as well as fertility rates have significantly higher than the local population, they became aggressively displace the indigenous people in the province of their own countries.
Ultimately, the mass “demographic aggression”, as it is called, has led to a drastic change in the ethnic and religious composition of the European population. It became apparent change of cultural, civilizational character. Many believe that Europe has the potential to turn into an area of civilization (and therefore also politically) relevant with regard to the third world. Mass immigration to Europe and a much higher birth rate of new arrivals has lead to the replacement of native Europeans immigrants. The far-reaching demographic consequences are inevitable.
- The nature and extent of problems at the present stage of globalization
The practice works in the field of foreign trade, and research trends of the world economy shows the key role of global infrastructure, providing all the basic forms of movement of goods, information, capital, energy, and labor movements.
Accordingly, the effects of global infrastructure – these are the main trends in the globalization process. Their consideration is necessary for understanding the essence of current practical problems of the modern economy and its development plans for the future.
In the context of globalization common to current economic processes, uniting them, giving them a sense of a movement: spatial ( “normal”) movement and time(temporal).
Accordingly, the analysis of the modern economy and its prospects should be based on the study of the movement, its content, and of course, the consequences to which it leads.
This note describes the most obvious and important economic issues directly related to the current stage of development of the world economy, and projects for the future.
– cost scale of the means of movement *, their creation and their maintenance in working order of their operation. These costs exceed 50% of GDP. Even this alone shows the importance of the matter and shall submit a request to test the feasibility of traffic patterns.
– Develop a global infrastructure “builds” the supply chain, within which the movement of goods, information, etc. Guided and fixed (contracts, corporate relationships, etc.) traffic patterns function in practice as a quasi-monopoly. This creates a whole range of economic and other problems.
‘Transport, communications, communication, etc. etc.
– modern traffic system is functioning thanks to the cities which historically developed as a center of dynamic flows (goods, people, information, capital, etc.) and continue to perform this vital function for humans. However, more and more noticeable are “counter-trend”, the negative properties that are more and more compromised the positive role of cities:
– city, these centers, the nodes in the traffic system, its infrastructure constantly requires more substantial investment. Payback of these costs has been delayed for a very long time. A clear “gap” between the needs and possibilities of additional expenses negatively impact on the development of dynamic flow of goods, information, ie economic and social development.
– following an urban problem:
– non-productive, irrational waste of resources, carried out by cities. In other words, even those expenditures that are made, largely wasted or even harm the interests of the general economic and social progress.
Even more difficult problem is the role of cities, especially the largest as a “black hole demographics.” The migration of people to the city pulls all of the great weight and, at the same time, settled in the city, these new masses of people only superficially, “statistically” replace declining indigenous population (citizens 3-4 generations). This process masks the extinction of hereditary citizens, and the substitution of the old urban population new alien. In reality, however, it breaks the continuity of generations. This happens in the world’s largest and negatively affects not only centers on the dynamic processes in the economy, but also on the overall social progress.
Analysis of all these and other issues is dedicated to this and subsequent sections
The dominant value overall cost of the movement in a globalizing world economy should pay the attention to the fact that, vo-the first, to find out the specific reasons for these costs. This is all the more important, since progress vehicles and other means of communication should in theory result in lower cost per unit weight of cargo (goods during transportation) or a unit amount of information during its transmission. Improving technology should enable to cut staff and thus save the cost of wages. However, these and other features almost led to an increase in length of haul, spread them on a “difficult” regions with higher costs and risks of movement, as well as met with the historical problems of the city, that is, the problem of over-investment long-term nature. A number of problems to be solved.
It is clear that with such a tremendous value (relative and absolute) cost of transporting all sorts of very important is the question of rationalization.
The problem is not only worldwide, but specifically Russian. Moreover, in our country, with its great distances on the need to combat excessive traffic, colliding shipments was hot enough during the Soviet era. In a centralized form of management of transport problems saving, resource, improve the quality of freight transport, improvement of technical means, often addressed to legislative procedures.
We are having many difficulties and disadvantages of transition to a market economy, which has not yeteliminated. For example, in food imports (including fruits, vegetables, canned food, etc.) import from Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary) is replaced by imports from China or other much more distant countries. This is especially true when it comes to the supply of the Central (including Moscow) and Northwest (including St. Petersburg) Russian regions. As a result of increased unnecessarily long transport to their negative consequences. By the way this has negative consequences not only for transportation, but also harms the quality of, for example, food products, causing various damage to the Russian consumers. In particular for food loads withstood ultra-long transportation of the selection of varieties, species (fruit, vegetables, canned goods, etc.) made mainly with reference to their resistance,Leznov quality. Even more negative impact it has on fish and seafood.The total damage in this respect is very great.
In this case, it is not limited to the criticism that applies only to certain freight flows. It is believed that even the whole global traffic patterns in the global economy (including the national schemes in countries including Russia) do not meet the criteria of expediency.
So, when confronted with a clearly excessive costs of transport turns out that the reason for them is primarily a very general scheme of transportation. The fact is that any and international (ie trans-Atlantic Europe – America, Southeast Asia – Europe, etc.) and in-country (in Russia. East – West, North – South, etc.) traffic flows arise, do not grow synchronously with the creation of and the development of transport infrastructure – railways, roads, ports (and cities as the centers of the movement in general), modern airports – “hubs”, etc. etc.
huge amounts of money have already been invested in transport infrastructure has arisen: financial, logistical, intelligence. It has long been in a situation where a much more realistic to put all the new, additional funds in the development of already existing infrastructure rather than creating some new. Meanwhile, an existing infrastructure tied tightly integrated with it substantially in a single unit freight flow system. As a result, cargo traffic scheme “falls short” of the new requirements of the economy and social life. The new conditions of economic, social require the introduction of changes, often radical, and established a general scheme is very slow and “reluctantly” going to change. There is a need to adapt to the new demands outdated scheme. This is reflected in the large unnecessary expenditure of labor resources of people,
These negative developments are taking place in the global system of freight traffic and, in particular, on the Russian transport.
In general, in the world there is a rapid increase in transport costs, which is 2-2.5 times ahead of the increase in the total value of world imports.
A careful analysis of the world’s major cargo flows reveals a range of transport schemes, which differ clearly a very large range. Even the most transportation of bulk goods – oil, grain and other youbinding question about the possibility of reducing long-haul routes. It is believed that the process of “transfer” of many manufacturing industries of European countries and the United States in the state of the “third world” will solve this problem. However, experts point out that this is a superficial judgment. Their argument is no less convincing. They refer to the fact that it is extremely fast growing transport container (that is, as a rule industrial) goods from Asia to Europe. At the same time revealing that the flow of goods from China to Europe twice European. The reasons are well known (the transfer of many types of production from Europe to the countries of the “third world” because of lower wages, etc., etc.). However, the cost is usually silence extremely negative consequences of this process. Europe, in a slightly different degree of the United States, “deindustrializiruyutsya” that is moving away from the actual production of wealth.So-called “white billion,” more readily flows into the virtual sphere (offices, banks, intellectual services, etc.). It is widely known, however, that the evaluation of the results of work in this field for more than complicated and unreliable. Due to the lack of objective criteria, what happens is that the remuneration for work often do is the opposite of the true result. So, once the crisis (2008) guide banks and many big corporations received scandalously high salaries (in the form of bonuses and so on.), Despite the fact that their activities are in fact contributed to the creation of “financial bubbles” (as vulgar terminology these characters ), and other distortions, which were the immediate cause of the troubles in the economy.
Excessive movement of employment in the virtual sphere (masked under the scope of the “services”) in developed countries and made possible due to the displacement of material production in the “third world”, as a consequence of an exaggerated development of many of the world’s long-distance and long-distance traffic, raises questions about the reasons for pricing specifics on transport.
The analysis of this important issue reveals the disparity between the cost of commercial transportation and real dimensions of investment in transport infrastructure, and if you add the cost of development of new technologies that gap will be very significant. Given the costs of large structures (eg tunnel under the English Channel, urban construction, “serving” transportation and communication facilities, etc.), you can be sure that the costs of transport and communication goals are much higher than the cost of a commercial size (transportation and other operations) on the basis of which form the tariff rates, transport fees and other similar payments.
The question of how to manage effectively subsidize the transport and communications sector is a particular big topic. This is largely done through the state budget, municipal channels, etc. even in countries where it is the capitalist market economy. In this traditionally two methods for obtaining the financing agreement are used. First, the argument that the creation of objects is of great defensive value (often the case); secondly, it is the cost of the project, which “at times” less than the future, the real costs.
This practice is common in the world in general and in our country. It operates correctly for many years. With her are often associated major financial scam. You can refer to the biggest scandal in the past, who accompanied the construction of the Panama Canal. In relatively recent times “did not meet the estimates” when laying a pipeline from Alaska to Seattle, the construction of the channel under the English Channel, and others.
In the end, it is important to understand that in the modern era, in the era of globalization movement system in the world economy “absorbs” the very large funds, most of which is spent inefficiently. Basically, there are very significant opportunities for cost savings.
- The monopolization of the processes in the global economy
The practice of foreign works have long attracted the attention of a new time – the 1960s phenomenon – forming of an increasingly numerous and complex supply chain to promote products ranging from raw materials to manufacturing finished products and then to the final release of the finished product and its delivery to the final consumer. It is clear that this movement has to pass many stages, as well as to ongoing coordination.
The increased importance of “dvizhencheskih” functions occurred in general as a result of the technological revolution – the culture of production, the very organization it had been raised to a new, much higher level of development.
The manufacturing process has to include a very large number of enterprises ( “subcontractors” and others.). Ordinary was constant interaction between enterprises which are at a great distance from each other, often in different countries and even continents.
So, visiting the automobile and TV factories in Spain and other European countries has shown that they receive daily component parts from Asian countries, including Japan. Continue to Explore revealed how complex communication system that ensures continuous production link between the “subcontractors” between parent and subsidiary companies, between industrial and commercial links, etc.Working, well-organized system is very reluctant “painful” perceived attempts of any invasion from outside, external competition, “the invaders”.
I myself do not just have to deal with this situation. When our country was awarded a very large contract with the firm “Krupp”, the Germans offered to supply equipment FOB Hamburg or Bremen fob-. Friendly Dutch freight forwarding company “Pakhauz- Mester” told us that she is ready on our behalf very cheap to transport equipment purchased through Rotterdam and provided a detailed costing.It would be possible with a change of contract (prepared for delivery “ex works” provider). The savings was estimated at millions of marks. Our country has come out with the proposal to the company Krupp. The actual background Bolz head of the company eventually agreed to it, to give us a discount (in the amount of potential savings), but with preservation of delivery FOB Hamburg / Bremen.
After signing the contract, I asked von Bolza from what reasons he went for this option. It openly explained that breaking the already established transport and logistics circuit (consisting of the packaging, marking ku, packaging small parts warehouse operation, etc., etc.) would lead to a substantial loss for the actual company Krupp.
It is important to note that as a result of this transaction, the practical conclusion was made in the Foreign Trade: organized a small unit in the “Sovfraht”, which I direct, to reach agreement with foreign companies about discounts. For major transactions we prepare costing for the future carriage of goods and offering foreign supplier to carry out the delivery of goods to the Soviet buyers (in fact – a transport company on behalf of the Soviet buyer).
The result of our tactics was that foreign sellers are always put forward a proposal to grant discounts and strongly refused admission into the scheme of its supply chain konkurentov- outsiders.
Thus manifested itself Closing of the existing system of sales promotion at the firm level. However, the problem is not limited to this.
At the level of the country competition conditions internationally quasi-monopolistic nature lead to serious economic, social and political consequences.
As global infrastructure subsystem do not accept in its membership “outsiders”, the latter are at a disadvantage without serious prospects for the future.When it comes to whole sectors or countries, the problem takes quite a dramatic turn.Prospects are “blocked” for the entire country and, consequently, people. In the immediate surroundings Russia this can be seen in almost all the republics of the former USSR. Not only in Central Asia, but even Ukraine and the Baltic states (which are part of the USSR very well developed as in the industrial and agricultural direction) are experiencing very difficult times.
In general, the state of a quasi-monopoly in the system of movement of the world economy leads to a rejection of branches of economic complex of the country, were not able to integrate into the global infrastructure. Thereby strany- outsiders remain outside the mainstream of accelerating technological and economic progress.A number of serious consequences occur.
In particular, it draws attention to the fact that the government of the lagging countries accelerate progress starts to speed up. Often, however, this policy not only fails, but even harmful, if there is no proper understanding of the meaning of the events (for example the era of Mikhail Gorbachev).
The second consequence is related to the fact that the global infrastructure by their functioning involves still in the process of movement, the development of those industries and business complexes that are of interest to it, especially if they can supply the raw materials, additional materials or to carry out “an auxiliary” work on manufacture of semi-finished products, etc. In other words, they are essentially “service” stronger partners in the global infrastructure hierarchy.
There is no doubt in this embodiment, integration into the global infrastructure offers the prospect to enter into the development process. However, if it is a separate unit (and the way it happens in practice) industries, commercial complexes, factories, then there are very serious problems to “bestow benefits” countries such sharing in the global infrastructure.
Almost in these countries out of a total national economy that emerged during the usually long time and its consolidated domestic relationships, break out those industries and systems that adapt global infrastructure. Economy of the country (the regional on) deprived “uvodimyh” components that work for export, and the national economy is destabilized and weakened (for example, countries that have become “assembly shops”, developed countries, tourist areas, etc.) of such a threat has arisen and For Russia.
It should be understood that it is not only for the withdrawal of the country’s manufacturing industries (which are actually starting to work on a global infrastructure), but also luring away staff, capital, etc.
Naturally the task of strengthening his, the national economy is becoming increasingly important.
- Communication problems of cities in the era of globalization
The key role of cities in the development of communications, and as a consequence, and in the economic and social (more widely in civilization) progress has never been doubted. New was its rapid growth with the beginning of globalization. There were numerous megacities and metropolitan area, a new concept of “global city”.
The dominant position of the cities in the movement systems for goods, capital, information, movements of masses of people became virtually a monopoly.This caused a mixed effects.
On the one hand the leading position of cities with their increased accelerated feasibility (and generally the total) development.
On the other – it has given impetus and more pronounced manifestation of the negative phenomena that already existed previously, and even gave birth to a new and dangerous trend.
These latter are so radical that deserve a very sharp response. About cities began to be referred to as “black holes”, referring to the economic, demographic, social (and civilizational) consequences of their activity.
From an economic point of view objects are created by the city and expandable over a very long time (centuries). As far as possible they are carried out the reconstruction, but in general they are lagging far behind the pace of development of advanced technologies. Completely replace the existing urban education with new, more efficient – is unrealistic. This would require re-invest huge funds, which obviously will not be returned. However, the construction of new urban settlements with transport and communication structures would require quite a long time and new towns completion from the outset proved to be insufficient to justify the cost of their creation.
As a consequence of the centers that control movement in the world economy is not keeping pace with the development of this traffic (volume, speed, level of control required, and so on). Backlog city became a hot issue with the onset of globalization and its accompanying acceleration.
The inadequacy of traffic centers is reflected in poor management, exaggerated growth of the population (as employed in socially useful work, and openly parasitic), embezzlement and embezzlement of funds, the creation of social antagonism.
Even more fatal modern role of cities as “black demographic hole” because it set in motion all the new masses of people attracted to the city, while in them (cities) breaks the link between generations, disrupting the transfer of knowledge and experience from generation to generation.
Questions increasingly bad, and worsening traffic control in the world economy is already reflected in previous sections of this note.
To set out so you need to add the impact of cities on the movement of masses of people (the modern “migration of peoples” as it is often called). This is an important phenomenon in particular intensified and taken on new characteristics in the current era of globalization.
Cities as centers of the movement, accumulate historical material and spiritual wealth (or pictures of people) that attracts new residents. In the era of globalization is essentially facilitated the movement (progress in transport and communications), and there is a significant easing of barriers: the liberalization of immigration laws, freedom of currency exchange, free movement of capital. All this contributes to the accelerated economic progress, but also simultaneously increases many risks.
Demographic impact cities with its economic and social consequences in a very radical form may be graphically illustrated example Moscow. This example does not fall out of the global context. In Moscow itself has concentrated more than 10% of the population of the whole country. Migration flows from all regions of Russia, including the Caucasus, the Far East as well as Central Asian countries flock to Moscow, the Moscow region, more broadly – in the center of the European part of our country. The scale is so large that the “Moscow” – the historic center of Russian government accumulates more and more of the population due to the depopulation of the rest of Russia, in particular, Asian (from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean). Experts estimate that in a few decades almost all the Russian population will be living in the Center.
Moving the workforce (not to mention the highly qualified specialists) creates difficulties for recovery industries in the periphery, even when there are preconditions for that (the presence of natural resources, low wages, pent-up demand, etc.).
As the migration from rural to urban areas for a long time already exceeded all reasonable limits, is now on the official data are abandoned entirely up to 1/3 of all villages. Most still formally continues the existence of rural settlements, as a rule, are people not of working age. The lack of skilled workers has become an obstacle to the revival of the village. For out of this situation have now donate land or invite immigrants to perform various agricultural work (the American cowboys are invited to show an example of the organization of livestock farming, and so on.).
Ultimately, the role of cities as centers historically arisen, “propulsatory” (in professional terms) movement, that is, in other words, development and progress, in the context of globalization is changing. The consequences of their life are mixed.There is a need for substantial adjustments.
Russia – a country of extreme lack of professionalism in the continuation of its entire history. And at all of its levels, including the highest in the area of economy and national decisions. The results of such solutions are obvious.
As examples, reference may be made in the construction of hydropower plants on the Volga River, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, and (thankfully) remains in the project “turn the northern rivers” plan.
The inability to make good decisions is expressed not only in catastrophic consequences. Very often, the professional inadequacy of the causes that the necessary decisions are taken not only in time, but not implemented at all.
An example of a long hesitated to address the important issue was the story of the joint venture. During operation of Foreign Trade (1949-1970 gg.) I have a lot of time involved in trying to get permission to set up a Soviet-foreign joint ventures.Later, in the early 1980s, I had prepared a small book with a practical purpose – to recommend to the Soviet organizations to use this form of cooperation in foreign economic relations. My initiative has been met with complete understanding and operational employees and civil servants.
Quite favorably, recognizing the urgency of the subject, we reacted to this and the publishing house “International Relations” (Head. Ed. A.V.Borodaevsky).However, there was an unexpected obstacle – required resolution higher party authority. Helped employees of the government apparatus (V.S.Koshentaevsky).Ultimately, we are given not only the resolution, but even called on M.A.Suslova with the requirement to publish sroch- but (though only under a pseudonym). Work came quickly, but was already in 1982. Despite the fact that the book was sent to all ministries and departments as a recommendation for action, the country’s disintegration process has already begun, the Union entered in the Gorbachev era.
In the era of Brezhnev was still possible for measures at a free development of the Soviet economy (mitigation of restrictions on personal initiative of citizens, the transition, at least part of the enterprise, on the real cost accounting, etc.) However, there was nothing done in the long run. Not fundamental solutions to economic and other integration have been taken with the “sister” (!) Countries of Eastern Europe.The result of this “escape” from the real economic and political problems was that in the 1980s the Soviet economy was stalled, and the “socialist community” collapsed overnight, as a house of cards.
Currently, the key to overcoming Russia’s economic and social difficulties is within the personnel policy. Real state action in this area should be reviewed, since they do not improve, and worsen the situation.
The collapse of education, health and science professionals age discrimination, disregard for the interests of the population (workers, pensioners, etc.) are not allowed. The course should be directed to the sanitation situation.
The process of globalization has put in front of all the countries of the new challenges. For Russia, this has created particular challenges as globalization coincided with the weakening and then collapse of the Soviet Union. Subsequent professionally incompetent reforms further exacerbated the situation.
To exit from a long “transition period” it is first necessary to assess the real resources of the country and to compare them with the challenges facing Russia the most important tasks. Currently, the most scarce resource is personnel.
It is the lack of, or even the lack of qualified, honest, dedicated professionals severely limits the country’s ability to conduct proper socio-economic policy.
It is necessary to restore the general and special education on the basis of the organizational system, developed in Russia for a long historical period. Most innovations Fursenko – Livanov should be abolished as clearly negative.
Out of the crisis in education is possible only if the remains of those experts will be involved in teaching and organizational work, which have been preserved from the Soviet era, just as the first half of the last century, the Soviet education system was created by people, are “inherited” from the Tsarist era.
To achieve this objective it is necessary not only to allocate sufficient funds (comparable in size to Western countries), but also, just as importantly, to provide with proper professional training and unconditional discipline of teachers and students. This will require tough measures in the entire field of education.
Since the key problem that limits the development of a cadre, a way out is possible only with the restoration of the continuity of generations. Remains knowledgeable, experienced personnel should be used to transmit their knowledge to the young. It is not just about education. Within the framework of academic institutions, companies, corporations want to restore the process of the education of young professionals of older generations.
Now it is the opposite, harmful policy of “squeezing” of older people to work.Despite verbal assurances, in fact there is age discrimination. Harm from this policy are obvious. Only provided a course correction will be possible to solve the difficult (and actual) problems.
Problems saving funds spent on promotion of goods on the trade routes, the movement of people (passenger traffic), the transmission of information, capital movements, etc. hitherto radically solved very little, but for the most part can not be solved at all.
Internationally, there is no organization that could take on tasks such regulation, and hopes that the competition in the market economy can “spontaneously” to minimize costs (globally) totally unrealizable.
Some attempts have been made with little results in the Soviet period in the framework of cooperation among the CMEA member countries, since the socialist states had a real possibility to intervene directly in business processes, including in the field of transport, for example.
Must specify that the relevant ministries (MPS, Morflot et al.) With their own members institutions engaged in issues of savings, including struggling with counter and unnecessary transportation and so on. These problems involved and the State Planning Commission. You can refer to the work of highly qualified experienced professionals, transporters DK Zotov, SS Ushakov, AA Mitaishvili, VA Persianova, LABezrukova et al.
In the current environment, in Russia the task of fighting for the rationalization of the transport system in particular has escalated since the rapid growth of traffic on the routes of transport (road, rail) faces of their poor condition.These difficulties are compounded by organizational problems. The reforms carried out in the post-Soviet period in the transport sector (elimination of many administrative structures, the deterioration in the system of personnel training, etc.) have reduced the quality of staff at all levels of management to the Ministry of Transport to the flight crew, the crew of ships, motor vehicle drivers.
In practice, only the state can rectify the situation, take the real, in fact, the monitoring function in the transport and communication sector.
Specifically, the government should revise the general scheme of transportation in the country and gradually move on to the network scheme, strongly contributing to the development of inter-regional and local ties. This can be done by acting on the situation of tariff and tax policy. Freight and passenger traffic, whenever possible should be sent by direct routes, bypassing the center of European Russia.Public participation could be expressed in the construction of roads, bridges and other transportation facilities to their destination to ensure that correct common (archaic) transport scheme and make it more relevant trends in the development of freight and passenger traffic.
Particular attention should be paid to the transport corridors East – West and North – South.
These areas have long attached great importance to, and even that koe done.However, no less than two decades have passed since it was announced the need to implement these plans, but they are still far from realization. Even it is known that the highway Chita – Khabarovsk has not yet been completed, and its quality is extremely sharply criticized. Even worse is the case with the arrangement of the transport corridor North – South. In the long term this is a very promising idea, because you can connect directly (via Iran), the Indian Ocean region and Northern Europe. The main transit country becomes Russia with all its benefits in this scheme.
Both historical project East – West and North – South can only be realized if the Russian state will take the initiative and organization of the work.
As part of the revision of the common policy on transport and communications circuitry Russia should create a major new freight traffic node that is better suited to the present territory of the country. First and foremost, that the new center traffic organically united shrunken European Russia with Siberia and the Far East
The changed overall geographical configuration of the new movement puts the organization and, as a consequence of the general scheme transportnokommunikatsionnoy Russia.
Practical measures on giving the Russian economy more competitive when the whole world quickly lined up quasi-exclusive supply chains closed to foreign competition, a very wide range of their diversity and require high professionalism.
In order to maintain “equal” competition with rivals, Russian companies manufacturing industrial products and ready-made foods should be well and deeply integrated with their subcontractors and promotion functions (raw materials, semi-finished products) as well as information and communication work should be clearly organized. Good results can be expected if the Russian companies will be able to offer not only comparable in quality and price completely finished products, but also ensure its delivery to the customer (preferably end) within the required timeframe for consumer location.
In Russian conditions to achieve such results is possible if the entrepreneurial sphere will be introduced the initiative and instruction by public bodies and / or unions of industrialists and entrepreneurs. For this, however, such unions (themselves) needs to strengthen its positive role in solving practical, operational issues.
Taking into account the experience of foreign countries, we can conclude that in the creation of supply chain production colossal role transportnoekspeditorskie company. They contribute to combining separate units advancement of industrial products from the initial production stage prior to its closure and transfer of goods to the consumer in a single well-organized process using high communication technologies. It is this practice of work should be implemented more widely and forcefully than is currently done.
Contradictions and risks arising from the activities of cities – centers of the movement of goods, information, capital, and mass movement of people, should not be ignored. Negative aspects of urbanization are global in nature, but in Russia they are a number of reasons, including historical, became particularly acute, a harmful form.
Paradoxical situation which must be corrected very clearly manifests itself by the example of Moscow. The largest transport and communications center, not only within the country but also internationally, is not able to organize a satisfactory movement at home, within the city.
Specific recommendations on the establishment of intercity transport functions repeatedly give the well-known experts – transporters (. Mikhail Blinkin, etc.), but to no avail. The reason that the situation is not getting better, is not only ineffective in the Moscow city authorities, but also the overall situation, which is not created in a controlled process of unplanned urbanization.
It suggests a number of measures to correct the tendencies that cause serious imbalances in the economy of the country, produces unwanted migration flows and destabilizing the social situation.
Firstly, it is necessary to create a more attractive investment climate in the countryside, in the province in general.
Second, the more critical “payback” of cities, especially the largest. Revise economically unjustified excessive capital flows, often artificially directed to the expansion of cities. Relatively speaking, “self-financing” principle should be applied to the assessment of the functioning of a large city with the corresponding conclusions.
Third, realize that to stop the natural movement of workers (such as Central Asia and the Caucasus) is possible only as a result of an effective policy on the localization of the population in these areas. Only the creation of a self-sufficient economy with adequate social structures will be able to fix people on the ground of their historical rate and do more to help them unnecessary mass emigration (an equivalent flight).
These are the general practical conclusions on three main topical issues related to the functioning of the global infrastructure.